Calcium and vitamin D supplements have been designed to treat calcium deficiencies. They have been particularly effective in addressing severe calcium deficiencies and augmenting calcium daily dosage among patients exhibiting lactose intolerance or allergic reaction to calcium rich foods. Research indicate that daily supplements of 500 grams of calcium daily has decreased osteoporosis vulnerability by as much as 50% but dosage still has to be increased among clients over 50 years of age. Calcium supplements can come in the form of calcium carbonate, citrate, lactate and phosphate, of which, calcium citrate is the most easily absorbed.
According to the Women’s Health Initiative (2006), there are claims that the introduction of calcium supplements into health regimens has deterred the development of full blown bone-related diseases in post-menstrual women by circumventing deteriorations by as much as 37%. At the same time, calcium-vitamin D supplements have been used by the National Institutes of Health to augment reproductive health and infant care programs (Ryan-Hartman et al, 2007). Currently, calcium related supplements are among the top food supplement products in the wellness industry.
Researches initiated in the turn of the century have significantly improved the effectiveness of bone health supplements. Initially, some reservations were expressed regarding the safety and effectiveness of the regimen because of minimal change in bone health indicators (“Report Highlights Benefits of Vitamin D Supplements for Senior Citizens”, 2007). Pray and Pray (2005) point out that one of the difficulties in ascertaining the effectivity of supplements is variances in dosage and formulation: in the case of calcium-vitamin D medications alone, there is no conclusive measure or success threshold established.
This, in turn, has led prognosis of the efficacy of supplements at a very conservative level (Women’s Health Initiative, 2006). Diets and Food Nutrition The other modes of introduction of calcium and vitamin D into the diet have been developed as food regiments. The premise of the interventions is that effective and healthy nutrient absorption can be best realized through food and nutrition.
The perspective has prompted the vitamin enhancement of calcium and vitamin D-rich foods particularly for dairy products and derivatives however there has been no conclusive relationship developed from calcium intake and the calcium in the products themselves (Huth et al, 2006; Heaney, 2000). The focus on osteoporosis prevention in turn has improved market performance of foods. Klotter (2005) points out that among all nutrients, calcium is among the most advocated by retails products. These include not only dairy-related products but vegetables, fruits and exercise activities as well.
Whereas there has been some counter-marketing against dairy products because of their fat content and fears of contamination from diseases in the 1990’s, they have gained better regard in consideration of their value in preventing osteoporosis (Heaney et al, 2000). The opinion is one that Klotter (2005) also recognizes in the course of her study of the impact of initiatives against osteoporosis in health as well as industrial markets today. In a related research, it has been suggested that rather that health protocols should not focus on delivering particular nutrition but rather the development of regiments as a whole (Pray & Pray, 2005).
Therefore, in addition to focusing on foods that will supply the required calcium and vitamin D, activities and health practices that will improve their channeling are prioritized. In recent years, the focus on nutrition and calcium-related research ahs expanded to its value in cancer prevention. Studies indicate that metabolically, calcium can deter the development of cancer particularly if calcium sources are natural versus supplementary in mode (Rivlin, 2007). However, Ryan-Hartman and associates (2007) advocate further research before any conclusive relationship can be established between cancer, bone health and calcium absorption.