What is Laryngitis?

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Activation of the opportunistic pathogenic flora leads to the diffuse inflammatory state of the mucosal larynx cover, vocal folds and cavitas infraglotticum called laryngitis. The disorder progresses rapidly and lasts less than 2 weeks. Laryngitis is followed by voice disorder or a total aphony.

What causes laryngitis?

Laryngitis is the evidence of viral less frequently bacterial contamination. The risk of laryngitis grows by inhaling pollutant-loaded air, overstress of vocal cords, smoking, esophageal reflux, alcohol abuse, deformation of the vocal folds, xerosis or muscle atrophy.

Acute form

Acute laryngitis infrequently occurs as a separate disease. ARVI, measles, influenza, scarlet fever and miscellaneous infections manifest as laryngitis.

Laryngitis symptoms are:

  • A sore throat and irritation;
  • Dry cough;
  • Fever;
  • Fatigue.

The voice makes hoarse, screechy or utterly silent. Pain in deglutition and headache are frequent complaints. In kids who cannot yet speak, the crying pattern changes – the voice makes coarser, hoarse or squeaky. The disease goes on 5-14 days.

Chronic form

Signs of chronic laryngitis:

  • Itchy throat:
  • Dry mouth;
  • Hoarseness;
  • Cough;
  • Swelling.

Form of laryngitis

Brief description

Catarrhal

Common form with a dry cough, increase in body temperature, a thick voice. Provoke a short-term voice loss and respiratory failure.

Stenoning

Stenosing form decreases the laryngeal lumen and croup manifests.

Hypertrophic

Thickening of vocal folds occurs. Voice problems are typical.

Atrophic

The mucosal lining grows thinner.

Hemorrhagic

Often develops with flu or blood-clotting defects. Patinas split blood.

Phlegmonous

Purulent form is rare. Accompanied by an escalation of all signs.

Why does Sore Throat Lost Voice Occur?

Inflammation of the larynx leads to the massive vasopermeability of the mucosal lining. In tissues, the lymph drainage is disturbed, the blood vessels expand considerably, and reciprocal condition occurs in the vocal cords. The folds grow in size, get dropsical. The patient complains of a total or partial loss of voice.

In chronic laryngitis, sluggish inflammation leads to the appearance of nodules and ulcers. This affects the voice pattern. In long-lasting laryngitis, the voice subsides after overexertion or a continuous conversation, after consuming extremely hot or cold food, inhaling allergens or irritants.

Pseudocroup

False croup (Thornwaldt’s disease) is acute laryngitis occurs in the infraglottic cavity, narrowing the laryngeal lumen. Most often it affects kids of 2-5 years. The disease begins unexpectedly, in the middle of the night, with a fit of barking coughing. The child’s breathing becomes wheezing, severely hampered, apnoea appears, nails and lips turn blue. This state lasts from a few minutes to half an hour. The next day the child wakes up almost healthy, sometimes some gruffness may be preserved. Without adequate treatment, seizures recur after 2-14 days. Symptoms of pseudocroup require urgent hospitalization.

Patient’s examination

Hyperemia of the larynx is revealed. Sometimes visible point hemorrhages on the lining are observed. Tenacious mucus and/or crusts of dried mucus are detected.

  • In the CBC, leukocytosis is determined.
  • If a bacterial etiology is suspected, a culturing of the nasal discharge and oral swish is done.

If the doctor decides that the voice problems are more alarming, additional tests are performed:

  • Laryngoscopy with an endoscope.
  • Video laryngostroboscopy.

Treatment

Generally, acute laryngitis subsides within a week without ьувшсфешщт. Before the sings of acute inflammation are eliminated, the patient should exclude spicy, cold food, and stop smoking. Breathing watered air in the bathroom with menthol vapor ease signs. Dissolve in lozenges, rinse throat with salt water or chew mint gum.

  • Antipyretics. Put on to subdue a sufficiently elevated fever.
  • Antibiotics. Recommended only for proved bacillosis.
  • Corticosteroids. Cut short vocal fold inflammation. However, hormones are used only for the critical need.

Possible sequela

Frequent acute laryngitis ends up in a chronic form. The main complication of laryngitis is laryngestenosis that leads to breathing disorder and coma. Abscess or infiltration of the epiglottis needs urgent hospitalization.

How to prevent laryngitis?

To escape laryngitis, one ought to lead a healthy lifestyle, give up smoking and drinking alcohol, and minimize spicy food. It is necessary to carry out activities aimed at increasing the body’s immune defenses: tempering, regular exercising, and balanced nutrition.

Turn to a GP if you:

  • Have labored breathing;
  • Spit blood;
  • Have pertinacious fever;
  • Have exquisite pain;
  • Have laborious swallowing.

References:

  1. Shaker, Reza, et al. “Esophagopharyngeal distribution of refluxed gastric acid in patients with reflux laryngitis.” Gastroenterology109.5 (1995): 1575-1582.
  2. Vaezi, Michael F., et al. “Treatment of chronic posterior laryngitis with esomeprazole.” The Laryngoscope 116.2 (2006): 254-260.
  3. Kamel, Perry L., David Hanson, and Peter J. Kahrilas. “Omeprazole for the treatment of posterior laryngitis.” The American journal of medicine 96.4 (1994): 321-326.

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