What Is Pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is a frequent well-known nonspecific urinary tract infection. Its risk increases with age. As a rule, the inflammation begins in the urethra or the excretory bladder and causes the development of a kidney infection.
Renal disorders occur suddenly or may be permanent. Without proper medical treatment, pyelonephritis ends up with fatal sequences. To ease symptoms of kidney infections, hospitalization may be required.
What Causes Kidney Infections?
The specific reason for pyelonephritis is not discovered. Nearly 90% of UTISs are caused by E. coli. Less commonly pyelonephritis is an outcome of the proliferation of gram-negative microorganisms, staphylococci, enterococci, and sometimes candida. In case of uncontrolled and non-systemic use of antibacterial drugs multi-resistant forms of microorganisms appear. 40-70% of patients complain about elevated blood pressure. Women suffer from renal infections 5 times more often than men. Exceptionally renal infection occurs after surgical intervention or cystoscopy.
Risk factors for pyelonephritis:
- Being a female. The female urethra is brief and wide creating an ease access for hostile microorganisms to the kidney.
- Poor immune function.
- Disorders of urinary bladder.
- Defects of urinary tracts.
- Urine backflow.
- Obstacle andocclusion in the urinoexcretory ways.
- Use of a catheter.
Symptoms of Kidney Infection
The signs of kidney infection abruptly present with shakes, fatigue, dizziness, heavy sweating, sickness and vomiting, aching all over the body. Breathing and pulse rapid. Patients complain with dryness of the mouth. Obtuse pain in the loins occurs. It irradiates to the pit of the stomach, inguinal region, large labia, and thigh. Deep breathing and coughing intensify the pain.
Local symptoms of a kidney infection are:
- Fetid or thick urine;
- Repeated burning urination;
- Urinary retention;
- Purulence or blood in urine.
Not all signs necessarily occur, sometimes kidney infections manifest with vague signs. In elders renal infections are present with delirium, loss of coordination, behavioral changes and confusion.
The Recognition of Renal Infection
In recent years pyelonephritis tends to proceed in asymptomatic and subclinical forms which make its recognition difficult. Kidney infection is oftentimes discovered accidentally or in later stages of the illness. A medical check-up is carried out to examine the uneasiness, pain, muscle stiffness, or softness in the loins and flanks.
The test to detect pyelonephritis:
- Urinalysis. A urine specimen is examined for causative agents and leucocytes.
- Urine and blood culture. The assays specify the hostile agent and evaluate their resistance to antibiotics.
- Nephrosonography. Ultrasound detects urolithiasis, vesico-ureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, nephrocystosis, obstructive uropathy, and other conditions that cause and instigate topyelonephritis.
- CT and MRI supply scans of affected kidneys.
- Micturating cystourethrogram. A shadowgram evaluates the urine evacuation from the kidney.
- Digital rectal exam. This examination checks the presence of the prostate gland in men.
Pyelonephritis is treated on a stationary basis or in a hospital. The primary treatment consists of antibiotics. The duration of the therapy is about two weeks. To alleviate fever or discomfort nonaspirin painkillers are prescribed. Sometimes antihypertensive therapy is needed to treat high blood pressure. It is recommended to drink water to ease fever, water deprivation, and to wash away the residual hostile agents and their toxins. Follow-up urine and blood tests are done to verify the efficiency of the cure. Surgery improves obstructions or defects in urinoexcretory ways.
Indications for hospital admission:
- If the disease is severe or the patient’s condition is bad
- When drugs cannot quickly weaken the symptoms.
- Pregnant women are monitored to prevent early delivery.
- If the person has diabetes, heart dysfunction or other disorders.
- Age above 65.
- Chronic renal disease.
- Renal failure.
- Emphysematous pyelonephritis is possibly a fatal outcome. EPN factor into harsh and rapid aggressive lesion of kidney tissues.
- Kidney abscesses. The pus is stored inside kidney and surgery is performed to install a catchment in the abscess cavity.
- Sepsis is a dangerous complicating disorder. Bacteria and their toxins pass to the bloodflow affecting main organs. It is a medical emergency case and patients undergo intensive care.
- High blood pressure.
- Preterm delivery.
The hints to prevent a kidney infection from developing:
- Stay hydrated and support fluid metabolism in cells.
- Pass urine test as soon as the urge hits.
- It is not healthy to refrain.
- After passing stool fray the anus from front to back.
- Eat a high-fiber diet to defecate easily.
- Avoid bladder stimulants (caffeine and ethanol).
- Exercise regularly.
- Use contraceptive sheaths with lube.
- Do not use deodorants sprays and perfumed cosmetics on genitalia.
- Treat bacterial infections.
Pyelonephritis must be cured with antibiotics. Without treatment, the contagion spreads to the bloodflow and may lead to a sepsis and renal failure. Critical conditions require hospitalization for intensive care. If pyelonephritis is recognized in the early stages, then the prognosis is good.