Weight Training involves using weights as a form of resistance training, either using free weights, or weights in machines in order to improve strength. To build up muscle, gradually increasing the weights lifted. Weights are lifted in sets; a set is a number of the same exercise performed one after each other. Muscles can be overloaded safely over a sensible period of time; however muscles can also be overloaded in an unsafe manner, which isn’t very good for the muscles.
Any weight training programme can take account of out current state of fitness. Weight training is used to improve sporting performance by designing a programme for our own particular sport, eg. Netball; powerful chest pass. By undertaking weight training your maximum strength (maximum strength, muscular power or muscular endurance) will increase. Improving maximum strength by, using at least three sets of six repetitions at near-maximum weight. Muscular power is improved by at least three sets of 10-5 repetitions, which are completed at speed using 60-80%. Muscular Endurance is improved using at least three sets of 20-30 repetitions. The weight should be 40-60% of the weight. I don’t think this type of training is applicable to my sport because in Netball, there are not heavy objects to lift and power isn’t needed that much.
Plyometric Training Plyometric training is a sequence of explosive movements that are designed to progress the level of muscular power. These movements include bounds, hop, jump, leaps, and skips etc, actions, which involve using force. The muscles can be stretched before they contract. This stores up elastic energy so, when they next contract, they will produce extra power. Plyometric training puts immense pressure on the muscles and joints. Warming up thoroughly first is essential to this training method. It involves skill so taking care is needed. This training technique advances muscular power by training the muscle to contract more strongly. It will improve sports performance; in order to do this creating a programme for the particular sport is necessary. This method will be useful in netball, because there is a lot of jumping and running around.
Flexibility Training Flexibility training uses a series of exercises to improve flexibility (the range of movement at a joint). The joint will become more flexible if the ligaments and tendons surrounding the joint are stretched. When warming up, make sure it’s thorough and stay warm during the stretching session. There are a variety of stretching exercises, theses consist of static, passive, active and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilititation) stretching. Flexibility stretching is used in order to progress flexibility and therefore progress performance, good flexibility is important for most sports. Flexibility training can be used to reduce joint injury by increasing the range of movement at a joint. It also allows is to use our strength through a full range of movement.
Altitude training traditionally called training at an altitude camp, or now commonly using altitude simulation tents or mask based hypoxicator systems is the practice by some endurance athletes of training at high altitude, usually over 2,500 m (8,000 ft) above sea level, for several weeks. At this altitude although the air still contains approximately 20.9% oxygen, the barometric pressure and thus the partial pressure of oxygen is reduced. The body adapts to the relative lack of oxygen by increasing the concentration of red blood cells and haemoglobin. Proponents claim that when such athletes return to sea level (where they are competing) they will still have a higher concentration of red blood cells for 10-14 days. Some athletes live permanently at high altitude, only returning to sea level to compete, but their training may suffer due to less available oxygen for workouts.
Planning and Designing Safety Aspects In order to carry out my circuit I will need to acknowledge safety aspects. All sport carry some risk of injury therefore I must be aware of this, and make sure my area is safe to carry out circuit training making sure there are no hazards and the correct kit is worn. No one should exercise when feeling unwell or on a full stomach, or chewing gum. Correct Clothing and Equipment The correct clothing for the activity should be worn.
Before participating the clothing that is being worn should be checked. The clothes that would be suitable for circuit training would be clothes that; permit air flow round the body, allow freedom of movement and clothes that are comfortable, safe and reliable. Participants should remove as much as jewellery as possible before taking part. Appropriate footwear must be worn to support and protect the feet as well as be comfortable.
Shoes must also grip the surface for which they are used and absorb any impact when running or landing, this will reduce risks of injury. They should be supportive and cushioned while allowing movement of the foot forwards, backwards and sideways. Trainers are a prime example of suitable footwear.
1. Stretches Hamstrings and the lower back: Place legs shoulder width apart, and drop into the gap, hold for about 10 seconds then bring upper body back to standing position, repeat this stretch another 4 times. Now…move legs to double shoulder width apart, stretch over to the left leg and hold for 10 seconds, now stretch over to the right leg and hold for 10 second, repeat this another 4 times.
2. Stretches deltoids and biceps: Stand static and place right hand on left shoulder, with left hand, pull right elbow across chest toward left shoulder and hold for 15 seconds, repeat on other side 3. Stretches triceps, deltoids, waist: Keep knees slightly flexed, stand with your arms overhead, hold elbow with hand of opposite arm, pull elbow behind head gently as you slowly lean to side until mild stretch is felt, hold 10 to 15 sec, now repeat on the other side 4. Stretches calf: Place right foot in front of you, with your leg bent, left leg straight behind you.
Slowly move hips forward until you feel stretch in calf of left leg, keep left heel flat and toes pointed straight ahead, hold easy stretch 10 to 20 seconds 5. Stretches quadriceps: Standing straight, grasp top of left foot with right hand, pull your heel toward buttock, hold the stretch for 15 seconds, repeat on the other leg 6. Stretches Hamstring: Straighten one leg and pull the other knee into your chest until you feel a stretch in your hip, hold the stretch for at least 10 second, now switch legs.