Vitamins A, D, E and K

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My personal exercise programme is designed to increase my fitness and my performance levels during my sport specific (rugby union) My pep is also going to be used to make others aware of some safety aspects for training. I will also mention principles of training and how they are applied. My warm up will be a vital safety aspect of my pep and must be taken seriously. My pep consists of a warm up and has taken into account, principles of training and factors of fitness.

Principles of training (S.P.O.R.T)

To overload in my circuit design, I have used a system where you can increase your exercise intensity and also increase your amounts of exercise. This means that as your body starts to become more able and fit as a whole you can make it work harder, and at the correct level. This can involve increasing the time you spend at each station, lowering the time in between each station which provides a shorter rest period. You could also increase the times you go around the circuit.

Overload should only be increased related to the correct amount for my own personal body fitness, which can go up by doing the circuit. It means that if my body does become fitter it continues to work harder. If it works at a continuous level of exercise as it gets fitter, the exercise will not work. It may even start to reverse the process. This procedure is called overload, this will make the body work at a good rate by always making sure it is working at the correct level, with the level a bit harder so it can achieve an even better level.

Reversibility If I do not exercise regularly enough on my circuit the process of my body becoming fitter will start to reverse. If I fail to exercise over a period of 3 days my body will start to lose the fitness gained from my circuit. It is important that I exercise around 3 times a week at least to stop this from happening. It is also important to keep my overload at a good level, if my body is finding the circuit easy it is doing no good. If this overload level falls too low for my fitness standard for a long period of time this can also bring about the effects of reversibility.

Tedium In my circuit tedium is with held to prevent myself becoming bored and disinterested. Tedium is a principle of training when it is necessary to prevent boredom by using a range of different exercises and activities. In my circuit I have included exercises for many different areas of the body, using different equipment and activity ideas throughout the circuit. I will use ball specific during the warm up and during my circuit also I will focus on the key aspects of strength that come into rugby union. Hopefully this will provide a good, interesting circuit, and tedium will not develop causing loss of interest.

FACTORS OF FITNESS (F.I.T.T.)

Frequency This is how often I do the training. This can also describe that the amount of one exercise that appears during the circuit, at different stations. This level of frequency can mean the difference between succeeding and improving my stamina and the process starting to reverse. I shall do the programme once a week, with weekly activities . Intensity This means how hard my body will have to work. This can be changed by doing simple things such as spending more time at each station. It could mean making the stations harder. E.g. by increasing the weight you have to lift. But you can also increase your intensity level in your head. Making you work harder psychologically. As you increase this intensity level you must not push to hard to overload, nor should the level of intensity be decreased other wise the training will become inefficient and will start to reverse all the results.

Time Time in my circuit is merely in the title. I will set different time schedules and limits for my circuit. Furthermore as an overload procedure the time I spend at each station will increase as I get fitter and more skillfull. The time between each station will also increase. Time can be used to vary my circuit and this will change and variety will be used regularly. Type This can effect the type of exercise that I do and usually has to comply with some kind of specicifity. It can change if the exercise is anaerobic or aerobic, or even whever the station is based more around skill rather than fitness.

Types of Training Continous training: involves exercise at a constant rate, doing activities like, running or cycling. It usually means that exercising at 60% or 90% of vo� max for an hour or more Interval training: fixed patterns of slow and fast exercises are used during interval training; each repetition is called a rep you have to finish a set of reps before you are allowed a break. Fartlek training: can be easy or hard to suit your fitness. it can be adapted to fit any continues exercise. It involves changes in intensity, when completing continuous exercise. Circuit training: a series of circuits can contain stations with each station having different exercises. Circuit training uses a range of different muscles; it can be used for both sport and fitness. Circuit training can be changed according to what skills you need e.g. skills circuit, aerobic circuit, anaerobic circuit.

Weight training: also known as weight resistance. Weights such as dumbbells and barbells create a resistance of force against the force the muscles exert. Weight training must follow a programme. a programme will involve a series of sets and repetitions. A typical number of reps in a set would be twelve. (1set=12 reps) My Training For my personal exercise programme I have chosen to use circuit training. Circuit training is the most efficient way of gaining fitness for my self in a four week period. In my training I am using a sport specific which can be used in circuit training. Circuit training is the only type of training that can work on a range of muscles using both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Diet and nutrition A well balanced diet loaded with fresh nutritious foods, combined with a regular and balanced regime of vigorous exercise is by far the best prescription for healthy living and good body maintenance. It is important that we balance the energy we take in with the energy we use. So the energy equation is: energy intake= energy used. For example if we take in 12000kj of energy we must use 13000kj through physical exercise. To increase fitness and to decrease weight.

If we take in 12000kj but only use up 10000kj we will gain weight, as the extra 2000kj will be stored as fat. But if we take in 12000kj and use 12000kj then we will lose weight. The best way to lose weight is to decrease your energy intake and increase your activity level. If you want to become fitter you must decrease a protein intake and increase your carbohydrate intake because carbohydrates are a resource of energy which is why it is vital to “carbo load” A balanced, healthy diet should be high in fresh fruit and vegetables, high in whole grains such as brown rice, bread and pasta, moderate in meat and fish, and limited in the fats and sugars. Meals should be planned with the guidelines of below.

Protein Protein is normally used for rebuilding muscle and body tissue but can also be used for emergency supplies of energy when carbohydrate stores are depleted, for instance towards the end of a long duration, high intensity exercise period. Many people assume that eating more protein will make them stronger bigger it wont. the body can only usefully use a certain amount and, although excess protein is excreted by the body, very high intakes can put undue strain on the liver and kidneys additionally, part of the excess protein may be stored as fat, an equally unwelcome prospect. Protein should comprise only 12-15 per cent of a total diet.

Fat Fat is stored as fat tissue around the internal organs, within the muscles and under the skin and is used as a long term energy store. Fat consumption should be kept to a minimum, especially in the case of inactive people. Fat takes longer than carbohydrate to be transformed into energy, and excess fat soon builds up around the body and can lead to overweight and health problems such as heart disease and abdominal blood pressure. However, a certain amount of fat is important in the diet as it is a valuable source of essential fatty acids and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. More importantly, it is required for its protective and insulation factors and for the crucial role it plays in the proper functioning of the female hormones.

Carbohydrate Carbohydrate is stored mainly as glycogen in the muscles and liver and used for short term energy supplies. It is a good food source for all of us, but especially for athletes and the physically active, as it is quickly transformed by the body into energy. If carbohydrate is excluded as part of a weight loss programme, as is often the case in low calorie or crash dieting, the result will be a loss of muscle for is emergency stores.

Carbohydrates split into two groups: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. In a healthy diet, it’s the complex carbohydrates we need most, particularly the whole grain version, since these offer greater fiber content. During my pep I shall try to cut down on foods such as cakes, confectionary and biscuits since these contain both fat and sugar ad do not offer the same level of nutritional value.

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