Vertigo: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

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What is vertigo?

The definition of vertigo says that it is a feeling when it seems that everything is moving, even if the person is absolutely motionless. Vertigo is an indication of the subjacent disturbance, not a diagnosis. Eventually vertigo comes up only once, when some types are relentless and happens again until the primary cause is cured. Vertigo is mostly depicted as circumgyration, or shaking, unstable perception.

What causes vertigo?

The basic justification of vertigo is a violation of the patterns supporting the equilibration of the body. Motorium cores are discovered in the cortex and in the little brain. The cerebellum is discovered in the postcranial fossa and directs synergy and equipoise. The awareness about the posture and performed moves come from the periphery (the eyes, nonacoustic part of labyrinth and the articular and muscular neural network). Vertigo is the outcome of the malfunction in the vestibular apparatus. The distress occur due to pathosis in the receptors (distal type), or when the brain centres are affected (central type).

Peripheral vertigo

Confusion of spatial orientation is distinguished by a sharp unexpected lesion. The conspicuous vertigo symptoms are distressing, hard to tolerate, lasting from several moments to days. Vertigo complaints include buzzing in the ears, hearing loop, wambling and vomiting, sweating, repeated palpitations, lowering of blood pressure and stumbling.

Causes of peripheral vertigo are:

  • The deposition of calcium salts in the internal ear. This functional impairment is called benign positional vertex and occurs only at a definite pose of the head and continues several minutes.
  • Blood circulation disorders.
  • Evaluated pressure of the endolymph (Meniere disease).
  • Inflammation.
  • Toxic effect of acetylsalicylic acid, some groups of antibiotics, furosemide, alcohol, tobacco.
  • Otosclerosis. The excrescence of bones inside the ear.
  • Ear trauma.
  • Perilymphatic fistula. It is the distorted connection between the middle and inner parts of the ear.
  • Damage and swelling of the auditory nerve fibers.

The rest causes of peripheral vertigo are arthritis, osteochondrosis of the cervical vertebrae, and visual impairment – double vision or incorrectly selected glasses.

In the event of peripheral vertigo, a person should visit an ENT specialist.

The dysfunction is distinguished by a slow proceeding, constancy and less heavy signs. Vegetative complaints (e.g., nausea, sweating, fast heartbeat) are expressed mildly. Uncontrolled eye moves remain for months and a person is unable to focus on an object.

The reasons of the central vertigo are:

  • Violated cerebral blood circulation.
  • Stroke.
  • Injuries and tumors.
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Headaches.
  • Syringomyelia.

Clinical investigations have also confirmed the possibility of vertigo as a result of strong emotions and impressions with fear, concern, and neurosis.

How vertigo is diagnosed?

A complete medical check-up includes: an MRI of the head and the spine, electroencephalography (EEG), echoencephalography (ECHO-EG), rheoencephalography (REG), and cranial X-ray. Audiometry indicates possible harm in the labyrinth or auditory pathway. Special tests are carried out to determine the structure of the disorder:

Vertigo: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

The tests for determining the type of vertigo are the following:

  • head-impulse test (the patient looks at the investigator’s nose, who quickly turns the patient’s head and watches the eye movements);
  • Romberg’s test (the patient stands with his legs together, with closed eyes, and tries to keep his balance);
  • Fukuda-Unterberger test (the patient is asked to walk in place with his eyes closed)

These trials are performed to specify the cause and provide appropriate cure, and significantly ease the symptoms of the vertigo.

Signs of serious consequences:

  • abrupt dizziness, which does not change with movements;
  • gait disturbance:
  • lack of muscle coordination;
  • deafness.

How to cure vertigo?

Medical cure is directed at a causative agent of the vertigo, but sometimes the reason may remain unclear. Vertigo treatment at home by applying empiric remedies supplements the complex therapy and must be discussed with the doctor.

  • Ginko biloba. The plant normalizes cerebral blood circulation. The most commonly given biologically active additives include ginkgo biloba powder.
  • Ginger. A cup of ginger tea with honey helps to ease the complaints of vertigo.
  • Peppermint, lemon balm and clover calm the nerves. It is worthwhile to drink tea after seizures.
  • Seaweeds saturate the body with iodine and phosphorus, necessary for the uneventful functioning of the endocrine system (the thyroid gland). Regular consumption of fresh, dried or canned sea kale prevents vertigo.

Bed rest is advised in case of serious disturbance.

Vertigo medicine demands drugs, exercises and rarely surgery. The effective vertigo treatment is an appointment of drugs improving the state relieving sickness, spatial disorder, emotional stress. Medicines are prescribed in case of abrupt onset of vertigo, and, as a rule, include antiemetic and antinaupathic drug. Drugs improving cervical blood circulation are also used.

If the cause of the vertigo is an inflammatory disease, antibiotics or steroids are prescribed.

To ease signs of Meniere’s disease, diuretics are prescribed.

The symptoms of vertigo are not severe and are reduced by gymnastics. Physical training includes moves causing a systematic and slow weakening of the signs of vertigo. These exercises involve stretching, developing equilibrium, coordinating moves and muscular firmness. Series of moves are performed to get the calcium grains out of the tract. These trainings should be conducted regularly, at least for 3 months.

In case of tumor, brain or cervical vertebrae trauma surgical treatment is required.

References:

  • Neurophysiologie, KruppKrankenanstalten. “Physical therapy for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.” Arch otolaryngol 106 (1980): 484-485.
  • Brandt, Thomas. “Benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo.” Vertigo. Springer, New York, NY, 2003. 251-283.
  • Hall, S. F., R. R. Ruby, and J. A. McClure. “The mechanics of benign paroxysmal vertigo.” The Journal of otolaryngology 8.2 (1979): 151-158.

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