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-dronate
Bisphosphonate drug. Bone resorption inhibitor. Osteoporosis, Paget’s, Hypercalcemia
Acarbose
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Blocks saccharide degradation and thus glucose absorption by gut. Causes bloating.
Miglitol
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Blocks saccharide degradation and thus glucose absorption by gut. Causes bloating.
Mifepristone
Progesterone antagonist, Abortion, keep mi vagina pristine
Danazol
Androgen that blocks FSH, LH. Endometriosis.
Ergocalciferol
Vitamin D
Finasteride
5 alpha reductase inhibitor. Blocks DHT formation, baldness, BPH.
Fludrocortisone
Mineralocorticoid agonist. Adrenal insufficiency.
Glipizide
Sulfonylurea. Block ATP K channels to promote insulin release. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells
Glimepiride
Sulfonylurea. Block ATP K channels to promote insulin release. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells
Glyburide
Sulfonylurea. Block ATP K channels to promote insulin release. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells
Aspart
Short-term insulin
Glulisine
Short-term insulin
Lispro
Short-term insulin
Insulin NPH
Medium length insulin.
Glargine
Long term insulin. Quite glarging around glucose, this insulin is determined!
Determir
Long term insulin. Quite glarging around glucose, this insulin is determined!
Metformin
Decrease hepatic glucose output. Prevents formation of glucose
Methimazole
Thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor.
Octreotide
Blocks GH, IGF-1, Serotonin, Gastroactive peptides
Oxytocin
Contracts uterus. Induce labor, stop uterine bleeding. Promote lactation.
Pegvisomant
GH antagonist. Acromegaly. Peg down your height!
Pioglitazone
Sensitizes muscle and adipose to insulin. Gets muscle and adipose in the “zone” to accept insulin.
Risoglitazone
Sensitizes muscle and adipose to insulin. Gets muscle and adipose in the “zone” to accept insulin.
Pramlintide
Amylin analog. Slows gastric emptying and makes you feel full. Less glycemia after meals. Pram down all the food you want, your body wont absorb the glucose.
Raloxifene
Bone resorption inhibitor. Estrogen agonist selective for bone. Relax bone, you don’t need to degrade, raloxifene is here.
Repaglinide
Stimulates insulin release. Also has the glide like sulfonylurea. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells.
Nateglinide
Stimulates insulin release. Also has the glide like sulfonylurea. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells.
Sitagliptin
DPP4 inhibitor, enhances incretin (GLP-1) action, which enhances insulin secretion, muscle/fat uptake, decreases glucagon secretion.
Teriparatide
PTH, postmenopausal women. May cause osteosarcoma
-thromycin
Macrolide. 50S inhibitor.
Aztreonam
Monobactam. Pseudomonas and enterobacteriae
Caspofungin
Antifungal that inhibits fungal cell wall synthesis
Cephalexin
1st gen cephalosporin
Ceftriaxone
3rd gen cephalosporin: pneumonia, gonorrhea, otitis media
Cefepime
4th gen cephalosporin. Citrobacter, enterobacter
-floxacin
Fluoroquinolones,topo2 inhibitor, tendionopathy/arthropathy
Clindamycin
50s inhibitor. Causes enterocolitis
Doxycycline
30S inhibitor. Teeth discoloration, photosensitivity. Intracellular bugs
Tetracycline
30S inhibitor. Teeth discoloration, photosensitivity. Intracellular bugs
Acyclovir
DNA polymerase inhibitor. Herpes zoster or simplex.
Amphotericin B
Binds ergosterol and forms K channel. Nephrotoxic.
Clavulanate
B-lactamase inhibitors
Tazobactam
B-lactamase inhibitors
Albendazole
Tubulin inhibitor, starves worms. Intestinal nematode infections.
Ethambutol
Mycobacteria drug that inhibits RNA synthesis. Can cause optic neuritis. Causes things to appear Ethereal!
Foscarnet
Blocks viral DNA polymerase. CMV, resistant herpes. Renal failure
Fosfomycin
UTI’s.
Gancyclovir
Blocks viral DNA polymerase. CMV. Decreases visual acuity, bone marrow suppression
Streptomycin
Aminoglycoside. 30S inhibitor. Can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. SNAG that ear and kidney!
Neomicin
Aminoglycoside. 30S inhibitor. Can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. SNAG that ear and kidney!
Amikacin
Aminoglycoside. 30S inhibitor. Can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. SNAG that ear and kidney!
Gentamicin
Aminoglycoside. 30S inhibitor. Can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. SNAG that ear and kidney!
Carbapenem
B-lactam drug with huge range of activity
Isoniazid (INH)
Tb drug. Blocks mycolic acid synthesis. Hepatitis. B6-depleted neurotoxicity.
Linezolid
50s inhibitor. MRSA+VRE. Thrombocytopenia.
Fluconazole
Inhibits egosterol synthesis in all fungi. May cause hepatitis.
Itraconazole
Inhibits egosterol synthesis in all fungi. May cause hepatitis.
Ketoconazole
Inhibits egosterol synthesis in all fungi. May cause hepatitis.
Ivermectin
Paralyzes helminths.
Chloroquine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Quinine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Mefloquine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Primaquine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Metronidazole
Made into free radicals that destroy bacterial DNA. Treat anaerobes+protozoal infections.
Mupirocen
Topical protein synthesis inhibitor (isoleucine analog). Impetigo
Methicillin
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin.
Oxacillin
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin.
Nafcillin
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin.
Oseltamivir
Neuramidase inhibitor for influenza- blocks release of influenza.
Zanamivir
Neuramidase inhibitor for influenza- blocks release of influenza.
Penicillin G
IV penicillin. Penicllin V is oral.
Praziquantel
Paralizes helminths. Cestodes or Flukes.
Piperacillin
Wide spectrum penicillin. Can target pseudomonas
Ticarcillin
Wide spectrum penicillin. Can target pseudomonas
Carbenicillin
Wide spectrum penicillin. Can target pseudomonas
Amoxicillin
Penicillin with activity against gram negatives and gram positives.
Ampicillin
Penicillin with activity against gram negatives and gram positives.
-pristin
50S inhibitor. Infusion site pain. VRE, MRSA.
Terbinafine
Antifungal against tinea pedis, cruris etc. Keep that turbin around your tinea versicolor unless you use this drug!
Ribavirin
Guanosine analog viral RNA synthesis inhibitor. RSV in children. Hepatitis C with interferons. Viral hemorrhagic fever.
Rifampin
Anti-Tb. Inhibits RNA polymerase. Red discoloration of all secretions. Hepatitis. Classic for enhancing all P450 enzymes.
Vancomycin
D-ala D-ala cross link inhibition. Staph aureus, C diff. Red man syndrome. Oto and nephrotoxicity
TMP-SMX
Folate inhibitors. Traveler’s diarrhea, UTI, pneumonia. Anemia of all types. Steven’s Johnson Syndrome.
-navir
Protease inhibitor in HIV. NAVIR TEASE a proTEASE
Zidovudine
Nucleoside RT inhibitor for HIV.
Nevirapine
Non-nucleoside RT inhibitor. NEVIR but REVERSED!
Enfuvirtide
Binds gp41 fusion unit, blocks entry of HIV into cell. Block Entry for Virus.
-nib
Nibbles away at tyrosine kinase. CML. Camel nibble
Anastrozole
Aromatase inhibitor. A nasty old smell! Used against estrogen-sensitive breast cancer.
Bleomycin
Blasts through DNA. Intercalates and forms free radicals. Pneumonitis
Alemtuzumab
B cell CLL
Bevacuzimab
Vacuums up VEGF!
Cetuximab
Epidermal growth factor on head and neck cancer. See the tux around my neck!
Rituximab
Hodgkin looks rituxulous, im going nonHodgkin! Anti CD20 on non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.
Trastuzimab
Trust in your bust. Anti EGF2
-platin
Reactive platinum alkalating agent. Ototoxicity
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclone of mustard. Melted mustard! Nitrogen mustard alkalating agent. Hemorrhagic cystitis
Melphalan
Cyclone of mustard. Melted mustard! Nitrogen mustard alkalating agent. Hemorrhagic cystitis
Doxorubicin
Ruby in the rough! Heart is ruby red and so is your pee! Intercalating DNA agent that may be cardiomyopathy and makes you pee red
Etoposide
Toxic to topo2
Fluorouracil
Pyrimidine antimetabolite. Gemmed pyramid! Uracil is a pyrimadine. Cytisine sounds just like cytarabine.
Cytarabine
Pyrimidine antimetabolite. Gemmed pyramid! Uracil is a pyrimadine. Cytisine sounds just like cytarabine.
Gemcitibine
Pyrimidine antimetabolite. Gemmed pyramid! Uracil is a pyrimadine. Cytisine sounds just like cytarabine.
Leuprolide
GnRH analog. Continuous secretion for decreased LH/FSH secretion. Used to block precocious puberty, prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids. Kate Goselin is Loopy cuz she took all those hormones!
Goserelin
GnRH analog. Continuous secretion for decreased LH/FSH secretion. Used to block precocious puberty, prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids. Kate Goselin is Loopy cuz she took all those hormones!
Mercaptopurine
Purine and guanine in names. Purine antimetabolite. Used mainly for lymphomas and leukemias
Thioguanine
Purine and guanine in names. Purine antimetabolite. Used mainly for lymphomas and leukemias
Methotrexate
Folate reductase inhibitor that blocks single carbon metabolism. Trix your folate.
Pemetrexed
Folate reductase inhibitor that blocks single carbon metabolism. Trix your folate.
Paclitaxel
Microtubule depolymerization inhibitor. No you stupid ass microtubule, you may not pack up your things and leave until you pay the tax!
Tamoxifen
Estrogen antagonist for breast cancer. To max boobage!
Vincristine
Blocks microtubule assembly
Vinblastine
Blocks microtubule assembly
Alprostadil
Prostaglandin E. Makes you ALL man. Used for ED and maintaining PDA.
Misoprostol
Prostaglandin E. Makes you ALL man. Used for ED and maintaining PDA. Prostaglandin E used in GERD.
Latanoprost
Prostaglandin F. Flattens your intraocular pressure. Used to increase aqueous humor outflow.
Eprostanol
Prostaglandin I. Pulmonary artery hypotension that relaxes SMC.
Iloprost
Prostaglandin I. Pulmonary artery hypotension that relaxes SMC.
Mesna
Fights drug-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
Succimer
Lead chelator.
Bosentan
Endothelin 1 antagonist. Used in pulmonary artery hypertension.
-caine
Block intracellular sodium channels to provide local anesthesia. 1 I= ester. 2 Is= amide. Esters degraded by Hoffman degradation. Amides last longer and require liver for degradation. Cocaine also blocks NE/Dopa/5HT reuptake
Dantrolene
Direct acting muscle relaxant, Malignant hyperthermia
Ketamine
IV anesthesia. Glutamate antagonist. Dissociative but no loss of consciousness. May cause psychotropic effects. Think of horse all trippy with ketamine
Phencyclidine
IV anesthesia. Glutamate antagonist. Dissociative but no loss of consciousness. May cause psychotropic effects. Think of horse all trippy with ketamine
Midazolam
GABA potentiation. Sedative and anxiolytic. Short-acting benzo. Respiratory and cardiac depression.
Lorazepam
GABA potentiation. Sedative and anxiolytic. Short-acting benzo. Respiratory and cardiac depression.
Nitrous Oxide
Reduce required dose for anesthesia. Beware of gas effects or diffusional hypoxia.
Propofol
GABA potentiation. IV anesthesia with very rapid onset. Can cause bradycardia and hypotension.
Etomidate
GABA potentiation. IV Anesthesia induction for cardiac patients
-flurane
General anesthesia, unknown mechanism of potentiating GABA. Maintenance.
Calcium Carbonate
Antacid and calcium supplement. May cause constipation
Docusate
Stool softener that acts as emulsant
Loperamide
Opioid antidiarrheal. May cause drowsiness.
Diphenoxylate
Opioid antidiarrheal. May cause drowsiness.
Mesalamine
Anti-inflammatory bowel-specific salicylate. Mesa of aspirin?
Metoclopramide
Anti-emetic, pro-kinetic (also increases LES tone for GERD). D2 antagonist. Clops dopamine. May cause tardive dyskinesia
Omeprazole
Proton pump inhibitor used for GERD, ZE syndrome.
Odansetron
Anti-emetic. Serotonin antagonist. Used for chemo anti-nausea. Oh Dan, set run! Then puke. May cause headache and constipation.
Promethazine
H1 (central) antagonist. Antiemetic, antihistamine, sedative. Blocks vomiting center. Blocks allergic reactions. Causes drowsiness
Diphenhydramine
H1 (central) antagonist. Antiemetic, antihistamine, sedative. Blocks vomiting center. Blocks allergic reactions. Causes drowsiness
Ranitidine
H2 (peripheral) antagonist. GERD, peptic ulcers.
Sucralfate
Forms protective polysaccharide barrier around ulcer.
Albuterol
All B2 (SMC-relaxing but cAMP-stimulating) agonists. Albuterol (short-acting) and salmeterol (long-acting) are inhaled for asthma use. Dobutamine is use as tocolytic to delay parturition, May cause some B1 side effects. Dobutamine is used for its B1 effects to acutely increase cardiac output in shock or for stress test. Dobutamine and isoproterenol think of for B agonism.
Dobutamine
All B2 (SMC-relaxing but cAMP-stimulating) agonists. Albuterol (short-acting) and salmeterol (long-acting) are inhaled for asthma use. Dobutamine is use as tocolytic to delay parturition, May cause some B1 side effects. Dobutamine is used for its B1 effects to acutely increase cardiac output in shock or for stress test. Dobutamine and isoproterenol think of for B agonism.
Salmeterol
All B2 (SMC-relaxing but cAMP-stimulating) agonists. Albuterol (short-acting) and salmeterol (long-acting) are inhaled for asthma use. Dobutamine is use as tocolytic to delay parturition, May cause some B1 side effects. Dobutamine is used for its B1 effects to acutely increase cardiac output in shock or for stress test. Dobutamine and isoproterenol think of for B agonism.
Isoproterenol
All B2 (SMC-relaxing but cAMP-stimulating) agonists. Albuterol (short-acting) and salmeterol (long-acting) are inhaled for asthma use. Dobutamine is use as tocolytic to delay parturition, May cause some B1 side effects. Dobutamine is used for its B1 effects to acutely increase cardiac output in shock or for stress test. Dobutamine and isoproterenol think of for B agonism.
Cromolyn
Mast cell stabilizers for asthma or allergic rhinitis. Crome masts?
Nedocromil
Mast cell stabilizers for asthma or allergic rhinitis. Crome masts?
End in -one but not zone!
Corticosteroids. Inhaled version used for allergic rhinitis, chronic asthma. Increases risk of nasal, throat irritation, and oral candidiasis.
Atropine
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Ipratroprium (lungs)
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Glycopyrollate
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Scopalamine (eye)
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Darifenacin
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Loratidine
H1 antagonists that cannot cross BBB. Used just for seasonal allergies and hives.
Fexofenidine
H1 antagonists that cannot cross BBB. Used just for seasonal allergies and hives.
Cetirizine
H1 antagonists that cannot cross BBB. Used just for seasonal allergies and hives.
Zafirlukast
Leukotriene antagonist used for asthma. Luke! Cast away your fears!
Montelukast
Leukotriene antagonist used for asthma. Luke! Cast away your fears!
Omalizumab
IgE antibody for asthma.
Theophylline
PDE inhibitor that increases cAMP and causes CMS relaxation as well as some anti-inflammatory properties. Asthma, COPD. Narrow therapeutic index: tachycardia, seizures.
Zileuton
5-LOX inhibitor. Blocks leukotriene synthesis in asthma.
Probenecid
Increases renal excretion of uric acid in gout. Prohibits acid (ecid) in plasma.
Colchicine
Inhibits leukocyte response to urate crystals in gout. Rarely aplastic anemia.
Ketorolac
Strong NSAID for short term pain management. Prolongs bleeding time and can only be used for short time
Infliximab
TNF-alpha inhibitor for arthritis and Crohn’s. Inflix lethal force on TNF.
Indomethacin
NSAID used to close PDA in premature neonates. Toxic for use as NSAID in adults.
Ibuprofen
NSAID. Used for moderate pain, antipyretic, and inflammation. Bleeding risk
Naproxen
NSAID. Used for moderate pain, antipyretic, and inflammation. Bleeding risk
Etanercept
TNF receptor that binds and inactivates TNF-alpha. Used to reduce inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis.
Cyclobenzaprine
Centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Used for acute muscle spasm.
Celecoxib
COX-2 inhibitor used for inflammatory joint disease. Less bleeding risk than NSAIDs.
Anakinra
IL-1 receptor that consolidates IL-1 in plasma. Used for rheumatoid arthritis. Anathema just like IL-1’s function.
Allopurinol
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Iinhibits catabolism of purines into uric acid to reduce uric acid levels in gout. Only for prophylaxis. May cuase rash,
Acetaminophen
NSAID. Analgesia, antipyretic, no anti-inflamatory or anti-platelet activity. Use for kids.
Acamprosate
Alcohol withdrawal is caused by over-active glutamate on NMDA receptors. Acamprosate somehow blocks this over-sensitivity and creates less withdrawal from chronic alcoholism
Buspirone
Anti-anxiety. 5HT-1a agonist that somehow reduces sympathetic overdrive associated with anxiety.
Carbamazepine
Sodium channel blocker used as anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer. Ataxia and classic for aplastic anemia.
Valproic Acid
Fatty acid that increases GABA and Na inhibitor. May cause hepatotoxicity. Seizures (absence AND tonic-clonic!), migraine prevention, mood stabilizer.
Diazepam
Benzodiazepine. GABA potentiation via frequency. Anxiety, acute seizure ablation, anterograde amnesia/sedation for surgery. Causes dizziness and drowsiness
Lorazepam
Benzodiazepine. GABA potentiation via frequency. Anxiety, acute seizure ablation, anterograde amnesia/sedation for surgery. Causes dizziness and drowsiness
Phenobarbital
Barbituate. GABA potentiation via duration. Seizure ablation for pregnant or kids. Dependence and depressant problems. Classic for enhancing all P450 enzymes.
Topiramate
GABA potentiation and NMDA inhibitor. Monosaccharide. Anticonvulsant or migraine prophylaxis. Some CNS ataxia, memory problems. Two mates for seizure ablation (GABA and NMDA)
Ethosuximide
T-type calcium channel blocker. Specifically for absence seizures.
Phenytoin
Na channel blocker. First line for partial seizures. Use in Status epilepticus after diazepam. Dose-dependent kinetics that are complicated as ****. Ataxia, ocular problems, gingival hyperplasia. Classic for P450 induction. Funny (pheny) -ass kinetics
Gabapentin
Potentiates GABA. Used for partial seizures, chronic pain, migraine prophylaxis.
Lamotrigene
Sodium channel blocker. Partial seizures. Causes rash and photosensitivity that may lead to Stevens Johnson.
Na Block Anticonvulsants
Carbamazapine, Valproic acid, Phenytoin, Lamotrigine
GABA potentiation Anticonvulsants
Benzo, Barbituate, Gabapentin, Topiramate
NMDA block Anticonvulsants
Topiramate
Flumazenil
Used to treat benzo overdose, may induce seizure
Disulfram
Alcohol treatment, blocks aldehyde dehydrogenase and makes you feel like poop when you drink
Zoldipem
GABA activator with specificity for sleep cycle. Good for insomnia and does not disrupt sleep structure that much.
Bivalirudin
Direct thrombin inhibitor. Heparin alternative for HIT patients
Cholestyramine
Bile acid binding resin. Lowers LDL.
Ezetimibe
Cholesterol absorption inhibitor.
Gemfibrozil
Fibrate, increases TG clearance and increases HDL moderately. Acute rise in LDL. May cause muscle pain (with statins!). Also causes cholesterol gall stones with cholestyramine.
Niacin
Lowers LDL, VLDL. Raises HDL best. Facial flushing. Sometimes hepatotoxicity.
Statins
Directly lower cholesterol synthesis (HmG coreductase inhibitor). Rhabdomyolysis (esp. with fibrates).
Warfarin
Vitamin K regeneration inhibitor. Blocks coagulation factor synthesis. 1 week until onset. Monitor INR (PT: Factor VII path). Fetal malformations.
Rapamycin
T-lymphocyte inhibitor (mTor targeting) to prevent rejection for renal allograph patients.
Tacrolimus
T-lymphocyte inhibitor (mTor targeting) to prevent rejection for renal allograph patients.
Sirolimus
T-lymphocyte inhibitor (mTor targeting) to prevent rejection for renal allograph patients.
Heparin
Activate AT3 to inhibit Xa and IIa (thrombin). Monitor PTT pathway. Works immediately, may cause HIT. Enoxaparin requires no PTT monitoring and is more predictable.
Enoxaparin
Activate AT3 to inhibit Xa and IIa (thrombin). Monitor PTT pathway. Works immediately, may cause HIT. Enoxaparin requires no PTT monitoring and is more predictable.
Protamine Sulfate
Use for HIT.
Folate
B9. Megaloblastic anemia. Prevention of neural tube defects.
Ends in -stim
Hematopoetic growth factor. Stimulates granulocyte formation.
Sargograstim
Hematopoetic growth factor. Stimulates granulocyte formation. Sarge, whip those ******* granulocytes into shape.
Dipyridamole
Antiplatelet, inhibits PDE to increase cAMP, which inhbits platelet aggregation.
Clopidogrel
ADP inhibitor in platelets, preventing platelet activation. Antiplatelet.
Cyclosporine
IL-2 expression inhibitor for renal transplant. Shitload of side effects.
Epoetin
EPO, can cause hypertension, stroke, heart failure if overdosed. Supposed to be used for anemia
Eptifibatide
Gp2a/3b inhibitor directly blocking platelet aggregation. Antiplatelet. Abciximab is just a Gp2a/3b antibody
Abciximab
Gp2a/3b inhibitor directly blocking platelet aggregation. Antiplatelet. Abciximab is just a Gp2a/3b antibody
Streptokinase
Plasmin activator. Plasmin degrades all fibrin and fibrinogen. Use for PEs but very high risk of bleeding.
tPA
Binds to fibrin and causes clot-specific plasmin activation. Less dangerous than streptokinase
Aspirin
Analgesic, antipyretic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory. Non-selective COX inhibitor. Bleeding risk, allergic reaction. Overdose is tinnitus and respiratory alkalosis w/ metabolic acidosis.
Amlodipine
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for hypertension and angina. SMC contraction depends (dipines!) on calcium
Nicardipine
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for hypertension and angina. SMC contraction depends (dipines!) on calcium
Nifedipine
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for hypertension and angina. SMC contraction depends (dipines!) on calcium
Carvedilol
B1/A1 block. CHF and hypertension
Labetelol
B1/A1 block. CHF and hypertension
Clonidine
A2 agonist that blocks NE outpute: antihypertensive. Use methyldopa in pregnant. Methyldopa may cause sedation.
Methyldopa
A2 agonist that blocks NE outpute: antihypertensive. Use methyldopa in pregnant. Methyldopa may cause sedation.
Digoxin
Increase PS tone on heart. Blocks Na/K pump leading to increased inotropy. Arrythmia, yellow vision. Causes atrial fibrillation with heart block! Hypokalemia increases risk of toxicity
-vaptan
ADH antagonist, used for hypervolemic/euvolemic hyponatremia so patients can drink.
Diltiazem
Calcium channel blockers used for hypertension or SV tachycardia (Type 4). Relaxes SMCs, conduction velocity, contractility
Verapamil
Calcium channel blockers used for hypertension or SV tachycardia (Type 4). Relaxes SMCs, conduction velocity, contractility
Dofetilide
Potassium channel blocker (Type III anti arrhythmics). Prolongs QT so watch for torsade. Come here potassium, jk I lied! (ilide), get out of here. Blocking K supposedly is prolonging phase 3 (repolarization)
Ibutilide
Potassium channel blocker (Type III anti arrhythmics). Prolongs QT so watch for torsade. Come here potassium, jk I lied! (ilide), get out of here. Blocking K supposedly is prolonging phase 3 (repolarization)
Amiodarone
Anti-arrythmic (Type 3). Potassium channel blockers with some anti-adrenergic activity. Prolongs QT= torsade risk. Blue-grey skin discoloration.
Dronedarone
Anti-arrythmic (Type 3). Potassium channel blockers with some anti-adrenergic activity. Prolongs QT= torsade risk. Blue-grey skin discoloration.
-april
ACE inhibitor. Hypertension, CHF, diabetic nephropathy. Watch for angioedema or hyperkalemia with some agents.
-olol
B blocker. Class 2 antiarrytmic. Blocks AV/SA /cardiac muscle sympathetic tone. Used in CHF, hypertension, arrhythmias.
Fenoldipam
D1 agonists that increase renal blood flow acutely. Used for hypertensive emergencies. F-EN OLD PAM, your hypertension is through the roof!
Furosemide
Blocks Na/2Cl/K transporter in TAL. Good for relief of CHF symptoms, edema, hypercalcemia (blocks paracellular calcium reabsorption), hypertension. Can cause hypocalemia, metabolic alkalosis (increase distal K load, which increases H excretion), hypocalcemia.
Bumetanide
Blocks Na/2Cl/K transporter in TAL. Good for relief of CHF symptoms, edema, hypercalcemia (blocks paracellular calcium reabsorption), hypertension. Can cause hypocalemia, metabolic alkalosis (increase distal K load, which increases H excretion), hypocalcemia.
Hydralazine
Increases cGMP in peripheral arteries to decrease SMC tone. Used to decrease afterload. May cause edema and reflex tachycardia. Classic cause of drug-induced lupus!
Minoxidil
K channel opener used to relax smooth muscle in treating severe hypertension. Side effects include reflex tachycardia, angina, hypertrichosis. Also used topically to regrow hair. Diazoxide acts on pancreas and can cause hypoinsulinemia (not used).
Diazoxide
K channel opener used to relax smooth muscle in treating severe hypertension. Side effects include reflex tachycardia, angina, hypertrichosis. Also used topically to regrow hair. Diazoxide acts on pancreas and can cause hypoinsulinemia (not used).
HCTZ
Thiazide diuretic. Use for hypocalcemia (or hypercalcinuria causing stones), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypertension. Side effects: hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, gout
Metolazone
Thiazide diuretic. Use for hypocalcemia (or hypercalcinuria causing stones), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypertension. Side effects: hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, gout
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretics. Contraindicated in CHF due to transient ECF expansion. Used to acutely deplete volume
Glycerol
Osmotic diuretics. Contraindicated in CHF due to transient ECF expansion. Used to acutely deplete volume
Nesiritide
Synthetic ANP. Used for decompensated heart failure.
Nitro
Angina, heart failure acute treatment. May cause headache or reflex tachycardia
Nitroprusside
Relaxes both preload and afterload. Potential cyanide toxicity
Propafenone
Class 1C antiarrythmic. Blocks Na channels with no effect on QT interval. No effect on AV.
Flecainide
Class 1C antiarrythmic. Blocks Na channels with no effect on QT interval. No effect on AV.
Quinidine
Class 1a antiarrythmic. Blocks Na channels with prolonged QT interval. May predispose to torsade. No effect on AV node.
Procainamide
Class 1a antiarrythmic. Blocks Na channels with prolonged QT interval. May predispose to torsade. No effect on AV node. Classic for drug-induced lupus.
Sotalol
Class 3 antiarrythmic. K blocking agent that prolongs QT interval. Has no adrenergic activity.
Spironolactone
Aldosterone antagonist (K-sparing diuretic). May cause gynecomastia and impotence. Eplerenone has less of an anti-adrenergic effect.
Eplerenone
Aldosterone antagonist (K-sparing diuretic). May cause gynecomastia and impotence. Eplerenone has less of an anti-adrenergic effect.
Triamterene
ENAC inhibitor-K sparing diuretic. Same effect as aldosterone antagonists.
Amiloride
ENAC inhibitor-K sparing diuretic. Same effect as aldosterone antagonists.
-artan
Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Use in patient that get angioedema from ACE inhibitors
Amitriptyline
Tricyclic antidepressant: blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Sometimes used for chronic pain. Has anticholergic side effects: lethargy, sedation, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain. Note that overdose can cause vtach.
Nortriptyline
Tricyclic antidepressant: blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Sometimes used for chronic pain. Has anticholergic side effects: lethargy, sedation, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain. Note that overdose can cause vtach.
-pramine
Tricyclic antidepressant: blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Sometimes used for chronic pain. Has anticholergic side effects: lethargy, sedation, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain. Note that overdose can cause vtach.
Amphetamine
Sympathomimetic amines that increase NE availability in frontal cortex for ADHD or narcolepsy. Can cause sympathetic side effects.
Methylphenidate
Sympathomimetic amines that increase NE availability in frontal cortex for ADHD or narcolepsy. Can cause sympathetic side effects.
Aripiprazole
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Olanzapine
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Quetiapine
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Risperidone
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Clozapine
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Buproprion
Dopamine and NE reuptake inhibitor. Used for antidepression or as stop-smoking aid. No sexual side effects as seen in SSRIs.
Fluoxetine
SSRI. Used for depression, OCD, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, fibromyalgia, panic attacks, PMDD, phobia. May cause sexual dysfunction.
Citalopram
SSRI. Used for depression, OCD, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, fibromyalgia, panic attacks, PMDD, phobia. May cause sexual dysfunction.
Paroxetine
SSRI. Used for depression, OCD, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, fibromyalgia, panic attacks, PMDD, phobia. May cause sexual dysfunction.
Sertraline
SSRI. Used for depression, OCD, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, fibromyalgia, panic attacks, PMDD, phobia. May cause sexual dysfunction.
Haloperidol
Dopamine antagonist. Also blocks HAM causing hypotension, extra-pyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, delirium, autonomic instability- use pralidoxime)
Droperidol
Dopamine antagonist. Also blocks HAM causing hypotension, extra-pyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, delirium, autonomic instability- use pralidoxime)
Fluphenazine
Dopamine antagonist. Also blocks HAM causing hypotension, extra-pyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, delirium, autonomic instability- use pralidoxime)
Lithium
Mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder. Polyuria, fatigue, impaired memory, leukocytosis. Toxicity increased by HCTZ and NSAIDs.
Mirtazapine
Tetracyclic antidepressant that blocks a2 receptors causing increase NE and 5HT release. MIR space station has 4 appendages.
Phenelzine
MAO inhibitor used for atypical depression. Eating certain cheeses or wines can predispose to serotonin syndrome.
Tranylcypromine
MAO inhibitor used for atypical depression. Eating certain cheeses or wines can predispose to serotonin syndrome.
Cyproheptadine
Used to treat serotonin syndrome
Venlafaxine
NE and 5HT reuptake inhibitor with no intermediate activity. Few side effects but may cause sexual dysfunction.
Duloxetine
NE and 5HT reuptake inhibitor with no intermediate activity. Few side effects but may cause sexual dysfunction.
Varenicline
Smoking cessation aid, nicotine antagonist. Causes serious neuropsychiatric side effects including suicidal ideation.
Baclofen
GABA agonist used to relieve spasticity in MS or AML
Benztropine
Park my Benz. Anti-parkinsons, blocks Ach (remember parkinson’s is thought to be excess Ach stimulation with little dopamine). Used as adjunct.
Donepezil
AchE inhibitor. Used for Alzheimer’s symptoms to increase Ach in frontal cortex.
Tacrine
AchE inhibitor. Used for Alzheimer’s symptoms to increase Ach in frontal cortex.
Rivastigmine
AchE inhibitor. Used for Alzheimer’s symptoms to increase Ach in frontal cortex.
Entacapone
Inhibits cetechol-O-methyltransferase, which is essentially blocking the degradation of levodopamine in peripheral tissue. Let Al Capone protect you dopamine!
Tolcapone
Inhibits cetechol-O-methyltransferase, which is essentially blocking the degradation of levodopamine in peripheral tissue. Let Al Capone protect you dopamine!
Glatiramir
Myelin decoy used to distract immune system and delay MS progression.
Levodopa with Carbidodopa
Levodopa is permeable to CNS. Carbidodopa blocks its degradation by liver. Used -capones to increase its availability even more. Too much causes dykinesia, too little causes akinesia and therapeutic window gets smaller as time goes on.
Memantine
Glutamate antagonist thought to block excitotoxicity in Alzheimer’s. Preserves your Memory.
Bromocriptine
Dopamine agonist used for Parkinson’s relief. Also used in hyper-PrL to suppress.
Selegiline
MAO-B inhibitor. Inhibits dopamine degradation in brain.
Rasagiline
MAO-B inhibitor. Inhibits dopamine degradation in brain.
Butorphanol
Opioid partial agonist with ceiling effect. Less respiratory depression. Used as nasal spray for migraines. Has scary psychotomimetic effects due to Kappa receptor agonism that makes abuse unlikely.
-triptans
Serotonin agonist useful in blocking migraines by blocking activation of trigeminal neurons. May cause dizziness or vertigo.
Fentanyl
Opioid agonists used for pain. May cause sedation and possible abuse risk. Chest wall rigidity.
Meperidine
Opioid agonists used for pain. May cause sedation and possible abuse risk. Note all opioids may cause biliary colic as well.
Morphine
Opioid agonists used for pain. May cause sedation and possible abuse risk.
Oxycodone
Opioid agonists used for pain. May cause sedation and possible abuse risk.
Codeine (weak)
Opioid agonists used for pain. May cause sedation and possible abuse risk.
Methadone
Full opioid agonist but useful as it has long half-life, suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms without causing euphoria. Still can cause respiratory depression.
Naloxone
Opioid antagonists used for opioid overdose or to prevent highs during abstinence.
Neftriexone
Opioid antagonists used for opioid overdose or to prevent highs during abstinence.
-stigmine
AchE inhibitor used for treatment/diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, emergence from NMJ blocks (competitive only). Causes muscarinic effects that should be treated with atropine
Edrophonium
Anticholinesterase used for treatment/diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, emergence from NMJ blocks (competitive only). Causes increase in ACh –> muscarinic effects that should be treated with atropine.
Epinephrine
Sympathomimetics. B2 receptors not activated by NE so can’t be used for acute airway opening. Can be used for enhancing local anesthesia action. Used for anaphylactic shock (epi), COPD(epi), rescue for asthma (epi), cardiac arrest (epi or NE)
Norepinephrine
Sympathomimetics. B2 receptors not activated by NE so can’t be used for acute airway opening. Can be used for enhancing local anesthesia action. Used for anaphylactic shock (epi), COPD(epi), rescue for asthma (epi), cardiac arrest (epi or NE)
Phenoxybenzamine
Alpha blocker. Hypertension caused by pheochromocytoma. Causes postural hypotension. Phen=pheochromocytoma
Phentolamine
Alpha blocker. Hypertension caused by pheochromocytoma. Causes postural hypotension. Phen=pheochromocytoma
Phenylephrine
A1 agonist (IP3) used for SMC constriction for nasal or ocular decongestant. Sometimes as acute rescue for hypertension.
Pseudoephedrine
A1 agonist (IP3) used for SMC constriction for nasal or ocular decongestant. Sometimes as acute rescue for hypertension.
Pilocarpine

Cholinergic agonist

Potent stimulator of sweat, tears, saliva by contracting ciliary muscle of eye and pupillary sphincter.

Muscarinic agonist used to increase aqueous humor outflow through trabecular meshwork in glaucoma (since it contracts ciliary muscle). Also can treat dry mouth. Some miosis side effects

Pralidoxime
Reverses AchE block in poisonings to reverse paralysis.
-uronium
Competitive NMJ blocks for surgery
Sildenafil
PDE5 inhibitor used for ED. Fills your penis with blood!
Tadalafil
PDE5 inhibitor used for ED. Fills your penis with blood!
-nacin
Muscarinic antagonist used for overactive bladder.
Succinylcholine
Non-competitive NMJ blocker. Short duration due to Hoffman Degradation
-zosin
A1 blocker used for BPH or hypertension. Relaxes urinary sphincter. Orthostatic hypotension.
Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that blocks aqueous humor production in open-angle glaucoma. Weak diuretic, can cause kidney stone formation, metabolic acidosis.
Adenosine
Opens K channels in SA and AVnodes, raising threshold for firing. Used to acutely ablate SVT. Can cause transient asystole.
Aliskiren
Direct renin inhibitor used in hypertension. Alice kills renin.
Bromocriptine
dopamine agonist- PrL tumors, Parkinson’s. Also used for unknown reason for diabetes.
Cabergoline
dopamine 2 agonist-PrL tumors, Parkinson’s. Second-line to bromocriptine.
Desmopressin
ADH agonist. Diabetes insipidus, bedwetting. Also promotes release of vWF (big board question)
Leuprolide
GnRH agonist that when used constantly decreases LH/FSH secretion- breast cancer, endometriosis, precocious puberty.
Demeclocycline
Tetracycline antibiotic used for its side effect of inducing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (for use in SIADH).
Dexamethasone
Glucocorticoid used to determine pituitary axis sensitivity to negative feedback.
Glucocorticoids
Stuff like prednisone, anti-inflammatory, anti-rejection, asthma, glucocorticoid deficiency
Ketoconazole
Antifungal with side effect of inhibiting adrenal steroid synthesis.
Metyrapone
Blocks cortisol synthesis. Sometimes used in Cushing’s but mostly used for testing ability of pituitary to release ACTH.
Mitotane
Blocks adrenal steroidogenesis. Only used for adrenal cortical tumors (very rare)
Spirinolactone
Aldosterone antagonist used as K-sparing diuretic.
drug with -estra- in it
estrogen
Levonorgestrel
progesterone
Norethindrone
progesterone
Nandrolone
anabolic steroid
Methyltestosterone
anabolic steroid
Anastrazole
Aromatase inhibitor. Blocks peripheral estrogen synthesis in breast cancer. What’s that nasty aroma?
Clompiphene
Estrogen agonist that blocks estrogen feedback on LH axis- helps stimulate ovulation in infertile.
Exemestane
Aromatase inhibitor. Blocks peripheral estrogen synthesis in breast cancer.
Flutamide
Testosterone/DHT antagonist used for prostate cancer.
Bicalutamide
Testosterone/DHT antagonist used for prostate cancer.
Letrozole
Aromatase inhibitor. Blocks peripheral estrogen synthesis in breast cancer.
Tamoxifen
Estrogen antagonist used for breast cancer.
Dimercaprol
Treatment for arsenic poisoning.
Cyproheptadine
Serotonin syndrome treatment.
Direct Cholinergic Agonists
Bethanechol
Carbachol
Pilocarpin
Methacholine
Anticholinesterases
Neostigmine
Pyridostigmine
Physostigmine
Edrophonium
Echothiophate
Bethanechol

Cholinergic agonist

Postoperative/neurogenic ileus and urinary retention

Ativates bowel and bladder smooth muscle; resistant to AChE

Carbachol

Cholinergic agonist

Claucoma, pupillary contraction, release of intraocular pressure

Methacholine

Cholinergic agonist

Challenge test to dx asthma

Stimulates muscarinic receptors in airway when inhaled

Neostigmine

Anticholinesterase

Neo CNS = No CNS (no CNS penetration)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Indirectly increase endogenous ACh

OD = DUMBBELSS, rx with atropine + pralidoxime
diarrhea
urination
miosis
bronchospasm
bradycardia
excitation of skel muscle
lacrimation
sweating
salivation

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