What are the 8 duties of a boat crew member?
1. Helm watch
2. Lookout watch
3. Tow watch
4. Anchor watch
5. Rig towing and mooring lines
6. Act as a surface swimmer
7. Administer first aid
8. Operate damage control equipment

When reporting contacts, what is the order in which they are reported?
1. Description
2. Bearing
3. Range
4. Aspect

What is hypothermia?
A lowering of the core body temperature due to exposure of cold (water or air) resulting in a subnormal body temperature.

At what body temperature does hypothermia begin?
95 degrees F

What are the 3 basic hull types?
1. Displacement
2. Semi-displacement
3. Planing

Displacement hull
Displaces (pushes away) water allowing the vessel to settle down in the water. Found on tankers and freighters; ATON vessels

Planing hull
At certain speeds, the hull will skim along the surface of the water.

Semi-displacement hull
Combination of planing and displacement hull; doesn’t truly get on the plane. Found on medium-sized small boats such as the MLB or UTB

What is pitch?
The distance a propeller will travel through a gelatinous object in one revolution.

What is stability?
The ability of a vessel to return to a upright position after being heeled over.

What are the 2 forces that affect stability?
Center of gravity and bouyancy

What is center of gravity?
The point at which the weight of a vessel acts vertically downward

What is buoyancy?
The upward force of water displaced by the hull

What is sector NY’s phone number?
718-354-4141

What is station King’s Point’s phone number?
(516) 466-7136

What does GAR stand for?
Green Amber Red
General Assessment of Risk

What is the purpose of GAR?
To calculate risk

What are the 6 components of GAR?
1. Supervision
2. Team selection
3. Planning
4. Environment
5. Team fitness
6. Event or Evolution complexity

What are the ranges for GAR?
G=0-23
A=24-44
R=45-60

What is the fire tetrahedron?
Proper proportions of oxygen, heat, fuel, and a chemical chain reaction are required for a fire.

Class Alpha fire
Common combustibles, such as wood and wood-based materials, cloth, paper, rubber, and certain plastics

Smoke color for Class Alpha Fire
White or grey

Primary extinguishing agent for Class Alpha fire
Water
PKP (dry chemical)

Class Bravo fire
Flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases, petroleum products

Smoke color for Class Bravo fire
Black or brown

Primary extinguishing agent for Class Bravo fire
AFFF
CO2
PKP (dry chemical)

Class Charlie fire
Energized electrical equipment, conductors, or appliances

Smoke color for Class Charlie fire
Blue or white

Primary extinguishing agent for Class Charlie fire
CO2
PKP (dry chemical)

Class Delta fire
Combustible metals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and titanium

Smoke color for Class Delta fire
Depends on the metal being burned

Primary extinguishing options for Class Delta fire
Water (high velocity fog)
Sand (placed underneath the metal)

Marine distress signals (17)
1. Red star shells
2. Orange smoke marker
3. Dye marker (any color)
4. Flames on a boat
5. Person waving arms
6. November code flag flown over a Charlie code flag
7. Black flag flown over a black ball
8. Orange board with a black square over a black circle
9. Red parachute flare
10. High intensity white light flashing at intervals of 50 to 70 times per minute (inland only)
11. Continuous sounding fog horn
12. Gun shots fired at one-minute intervals
13. SOS Morse code
14. Radio telephone alarm
15. Radio telegraph alarm
16. MAYDAY radio broadcast
17. EPIRB

What does EPIRB stand for?
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon

1 short blast
I intend to leave you on my port side

2 short blasts
I intend to leave you on my starboard side

3 short blasts
I am operating astern propulsion

Prolonged blast
Approaching a blind bend in a channel or getting underway

5 short blasts
Danger signal

Whistle signal for sailing vessels during periods of reduced visibility
1 prolonged + 2 short

Color and Arc of visibility for port light
Red, 112.5 degrees

Color and Arc of visibility for starboard light
Green, 112.5 degrees

Color and Arc of visibility for stern light
White, 135 degrees

Color and Arc of visibility for masthead light
White, 225 degrees

What is free communication with the sea?
The unobstructed movement of seawater into and out of the vessel, caused by damage to the hull

Situation that may cause fatigue (9)
1. Extreme hot or cold weather conditions
2. Eye strain from hours of looking through sea-spray blurred windshields
3. Effort of holding on and maintaining balance
4. Stress
5. Exposure to noise
6. Exposure to the sun
7. Poor physical conditioning
8. Lack of sleep
9. Boredom

What is the crew’s responsibility for monitoring fatigue?
Crew must watch each other’s condition to prevent excessive fatigue

Primary symptoms of fatigue (6)
1. Inability to focus or concentrate/narrowed attention span
2. Confusion or judgement error
3. Decreased coordination of motor skills and sensory ability
4. Increased irritability
5. Decreased performance
6. Decreased concern for safety

Describe prevention measures for fatigue (5)
1. Adequate rest
2. Appropriate dress for weather conditions
3. Rotate crew duties
4. Provide food and refreshments
5. Observe other crew members for signs of fatigue

What is motion sickness?
Nausea and/or vomiting caused by an imbalance between visual images and the portion of the middle ear that senses motion

Symptoms of motion sickness (7)
1. Nausea and vomiting
2. Increased salivation
3. Unusual paleness
4. Sweating
5. Drowsiness
6. Overall weakness
7. Stomach discomfort

Prevention and medication for motion sickness (5)
1. Stay out of confined spaces
2. Stay above deck in the fresh air
3. Avoid concentrating on the movement of the boat by looking out over the water toward the horizon or shoreline
4. Avoid smoking
5. Scopolamine patches and anti-motion sickness medication

When is it best to take anti-motion sickness medication?
Throughout their watch or about 1 hour prior to getting underway

What are the 7 Team Coordination Training skills?
1. Mission analysis
2. Communication
3. Situational awareness
4. Assertiveness
5. Leadership
6. Adaptability and flexibility
7. Decision making

The Type III PFD is also known as a ___ aid.
flotation

When is the Type III PFD typically worn?
Worn aboard boats when freedom of movement is required and the risk of falling overboard is minimal

Is the Type III PFD designed to turn an unconscious wearer to a face-up position?
No

How much buoyancy does the Type III PFD provide?
Minimum of 15.5 lbs

What type of PFD are the anti-exposure coveralls?
Type V

At what water temps is the anti-exposure coverall required?
Between 50 and 60 degress F

Explain how the anti-exposure coveralls work?
Straps located at the neck, waist, thighs, wrists, and ankles are designed to section water throughout the suit, using body heat for thermoregulation

What is the purpose of the emergency signaling mirror?
Attracts attention of passing aircraft, boats, or ground rescue teams by reflecting light at them

How far can the reflected light from the signaling mirror be seen?
At great distances

Where are the instructions for the signaling mirror?
Printed on the back

What is the MK-124?
Smoke and illumination signal

The day end of the MK-124 produces ___. The night end produces ___.
orange smoke
red flare

Each end of the MK-124 lasts about ___.
20 seconds

The MK-124 may also be used in helo hoists to do what?
Indicate wind direction

What is the MK-79?
Illumination signal kit

The MK-79 produces a ___ ___ display.
red star

The MK-79 flares reach heights of ___.
250-650 ft

Each MK-79 flare burns for a minimum of ___.
4.5 seconds

What is the luminosity of the MK-79?
12,000 candlepower

What are the names for the signal projector and hand-fired signals?
MK-31
MK-80

How many flashes does the strobe light emit?
50-70 per minute

What is the luminosity of the strobe light?
100,000 candlepower

Flashes for ___ hours under constant operation or ___ hours when operated intermittently.
9
18

On a clear night, the strobe light can be seen from a minimum range of ___.
5 miles

What emergency signal should be operated first?
Personal Locator Beacon (PLB)

On what frequencies does the PLB broadcast?
406 MHz and 121.5 MHz

The PLB will provide a position accurate to within ___ NM within ___ minutes.
3
90

What are the survival procedures in the event the boat capsizes?
1) Windows, back door, cuddy cabin door
2) Best swimmer first with a line. Remove PFD if necessary
3) Swimmer taps on hull to signal other crew members
4) Poor swimmers go next, good swimmer last
5) Activate PLB and stay with the boat until rescued or boat capsizes

What are the two types of keels?
Bar keel and flat plate keel

What is a bar keel?
Stiffeners protect the boat’s hull plating if the boat grounds on a hard bottom; reduces rolling

What is a flat plate keel?
Keel is perpendicular to the centerline of the hull

What is the freeboard?
The height of a vessel’s hull from the waterline to the main deck

What is the draft?
The depth of water from waterline to keel

What is light displacement?
The weight of the boat excluding fuel, water, outfit, cargo, crew, and passengers

What is loaded displacement?
The weight of the boat including fuel, water, outfit, cargo, crew, and passengers

What are the three parts that make hatches watertight?
1. Dogs
2. Gaskets
3. “Knife edge”

What is watertight integrity?
Includes the interior of a boat compartmentalized by bulkheads, decks, and hatches.

What are general boat design features that influence stability (7)?
1. Size and shape of hull
2. Draft
3. Trim
4. Displacement
5. Freeboard
6. Superstructure size, shape, and weight
7. Non-watertight openings

What is the bitter end?
The working end or free end of the line; normally the part of the line you will work with.

What is the standing part?
The part of the line left over; normally not used when tying knots.

Light configuration: Red over red
Boat is not under command; avoid this boat

Light configuration: Red over green
Identifies a sailboat

Light configuration: Red over white
Commercial fishing vessel

Light configuration: Green over white
Vessel engaged in trawling, e.g. a shrimping boat

Light configuration: White over white
A short tug/tow, under 200 meters from stern to stern

Light configuration: White over white over white
A long tug/tow, over 200 meters from stern to stern

Light configuration: Red over red over red
A vessel constrained by her draft

Light configuration: White over red
Vessel is being piloted

Light configuration: Red over white over red
A vessel is restricted in its ability to maneuver, such as AtoN vessels

Light configuration (stern): Yellow over yellow
Tug pushing a barge (inland only)

Light configuration (stern): Yellow over white
Tug towing astern

Describe a can buoy
Green, left, leaving; going out to sea; numbers are odd and decreasing

Describe a nun buoy
Red, right, returning; coming back from sea; numbers are even and increasing

What is a preferred channel marker?
Preferred channel is the topmost color; if topmost band is green, the preferred channel is to starboard; if the topmost band is red, the preferred channel is to port

What is first aid?
Doing what must be done before expert help is available

What is the first thing a rescuer should assess before performing first aid?
Ensure the scene is safe

What 5 steps should be performed during an initial assessment?
1) Number of patients
2) General condition of patient(s)
3) Mechanism of injury
4) Level of consciousness
5) Causes or symptoms of shock

What two bloodborne pathogens can human blood contain?
Hepatitis B and HIV

How do we protect ourselves from bloodborne pathogens?
By donning appropriate PPE

What is shock?
A depressed physiological or mental state

True or false: shock should only be assessed once throughout the patient encounter.
False: signs of shock should be assessed first and monitored throughout treatment

What are some events that typically cause shock (8)?
1) Trauma
2) Allergic reactions
3) Hypothermia
4) Drugs
5) Toxins
6) Heart attack
7) Illnesses such as diabetes
8) Emotional

What are some symptoms of shock (8)?
1) Restlessness
2) Fainting
3) Thirst
4) Nausea
5) Weakness
6) Anxiousness
7) Fright
8) Dizziness

What are some signs of shock (5)?
1) Pulse: weak and rapid
2) Breathing: shallow, rapid, and irregular
3) Skin: cold, clammy (sweating)
4) Pupils: dilated
5) State of consciousness: alert to unconscious

What are some initial treatments for shock?
Limiting a patient’s activity, or have the patient lie down. Keep them warm. If unconscious, activate EMS and CPR may be necessary

What are some other procedures in treating shock?
1) Check for medical alert jewelry
2) Patient history
3) Get help and transport, if advised
4) Provide specific treatment, if advised
5) If no head injury or breathing trouble, place victim in supine position and elevate legs about 8 to 10 inches
6) Perform CPR, if necessary
7) Warm with blankets, unless already overheated
8) If conscious, moisten lips, if requested
9) Do not allow patient to eat or drink
10) Never give alcohol
11) Handle gently

What is anaphylactic shock?
A rapid, extreme allergic reaction

What are some causes of anaphylaxis?
1) Eating fish or shellfish
2) Ingesting particular types of berries or drugs, such as penicillin
3) Insect stings
4) Injected drugs
5) Exercise
6) Cold
7) Inhaled substances

What are some symptoms of anaphylaxis?
1) Itching, hives, flushing
2) Swelling of lips, tongue, feet, throat, hands
3) Wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing
4) Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea
5) Headache
6) Altered mental status
7) Loss of consciousness

Death can occur within ___ to ___ minutes after respiratory failure.
4 to 6

What are some events that cause people to stop breathing (7)?
1) Near drowning
2) Suffocation
3) Electrocution
4) Poison gas
5) Heart attack
6) Drug overdose
7) Choking

What is resuscitation?
A general term that covers all measures taken to restore life or consciousness to an individual

What are 3 measures taken to restore life?
1) Artificial respiration
2) Cardiac compression
3) CPR

What is artificial respiration?
Starting normal respiratory function, and includes breathing maneuvers, such as mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-nose, or mouth-to-stoma

What is cardiac compression?
A method used to restore normal blood-flow to the brain

CPR uses both ___ and ___ to revive a victim in respiratory and cardiac arrest.
artificial respiration
cardiac compression

What are the current CPR procedures?
1) Attempt to revive patient using a sternal rub and shouting “Are you OK?”
2) If no response, recruit someone to call 911, and another to get the AED (if available)
3) Lay the victim on their back if they are not already
4) Look, listen, and feel for chest rise and breathing
5) If patient does not appear to be breathing, start chest compressions at about 2-inches deep, counting to 30
6) Perform a head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver to open airway and administer 2 artificial respirations (preferably using a pocket mask or BVM) just long enough to see chest rise.
7) Perform another 30 chest compressions
8) Perform CPR until the patient revives, EMS arrives, or the rescuer is physically unable to continue

In what circumstances would you not perform CPR?
When the patient is obviously dead; decapitation, incineration, major organs are missing, rigor mortis, lividity

What should you do for a choking victim?
1) Monitor patient to see if they will free the obstruction by coughing
2) If they cannot free the obstruction on their own, call EMS
3) Administer chest thrusts, abdominal thrusts or back blows (infants)
4) If patient becomes unresponsive, begin CPR, checking airway for obstructions before administering rescue breaths
5) Only perform finger sweep if the object is visible
6) If object is removed, check ABCs and determine if artificial respiration or CPR is required

What are signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
1) Severe, crushing type of pain under the breastbone, arms, neck, and jaw
2) Profuse sweating
3) Shortness of breath
4) Extreme anxiety
5) Nausea and vomiting
6) Bluish discoloration of lips, fingernails, and skin

How would you treat a patient having a heart attack?
1) Keep the victim quiet and put in position of comfort
2) Activate EMS
3) Administer O2 (if trained and available)
4) Ask the patient if they are taking medication for a heart condition, such as nitroglycerin, and when they took it last
5) Stay with patient till EMS arrives

What is a stroke?
Any bleeding or clotting affecting the blood vessels of the brain

What are some symptoms of a stroke?
1) Unconsciousness
2) Shock
3) Confusion
4) Dizziness
5) Numbness/weakness to one side of the body
6) Seizures
7) Impaired vision
8) Headache
9) Facial droop
10) Difficulty speaking or using limbs

How do you treat a stroke?
1) Activate EMS
2) Treat for shock
3) If the patient has difficulty breathing, maintain a patent airway and provide rescue breaths

In what circumstances would you NOT elevate the legs to treat for shock?
SCUBA diving accidents and head injuries

What are 2 problems seen in scuba diving accidents?
1) Air emboli
2) The “bends”

What is the total fuel consumption at 35 knots?
18 hours

What is variation?
The difference between true north and compass north

What is deviation?
How much the compass deviates due to external forces and metals

What are the 4 ways to stop bleeding, in order?
1) Pressure
2) Direct pressure
3) Raise above heart level
4) Turniquet

What are the 3 types of bleeding?
Arterial, venous, and capillary

Describe arterial bleeding
Comes from an artery, bright red, gushing with pulse

Describe venous bleeding
Comes from a vein, dark red, steady flow

Describe capillary bleeding
Comes from a capillary, bright red, oozing

Where would apply a tourniquet?
2 to 3 inches above the wound; never over a joint.

What are “the bends”?
A decompression sickness; nitrogen gas bubbles form in the blood stream due to rapid ascent during SCUBA diving

Divers increase the risk of decompression sickness if they ___ within 12 hours after a dive.
fly

What are the signs and symptoms of decompression sickness?
Deep pain to muscles and joints
Choking
Coughing
Labored breathing
Chest pains
Blotches on the skin (mottling)

What is a bandage?
A strip of woven material that holds a wound, dressing, or splint in place; immobilizes, supports, and protects an injured part of the body

How can you prevent interfering with circulation when applying a bandage (3)?
1) Leave fingertips and toes exposed
2) Loosen bandage if victim complains of numbness or tingling
3) Watch for swelling, color changes, and cold or cool fingers or toes

What is hemorrhage?
Bleeding

How many pints of blood are there in the human body?
10

What are pressure points?
Areas in the body where a major artery flows over a bony prominence

Where are the 10 pressure points located on the human body?
1) Facial
2) Subclavian
3) Axillary
4) Radial and ulnar
5) Femoral
6) Dorsalis pedis
7) Temporal
8) Carotid
9) Brachial
10) Popliteal

What are the steps for applying a tourniquet (5)?
1) 2-3 inches about the wound; if close to a joint, place it above the joint
2) Wrap the tourniquet band tightly around the limb twice and secure in place
3) Attach a note to the victim giving the location of the tourniquet and time it was applied, or write the letter “T” on the patient’s forehead with the time it was applied
4) Do not loosen the tourniquet
5) Treat for shock

What is a fracture?
A broken or cracked bone

What are the 2 types of fractures?
1) Compound (open); the bone has broken and may protrude from a wound
2) Simple (closed)

What are some signs and symptoms of a fracture?
Pain, swelling, and discoloration at injury site
Deformity and/or disability of injured part
Victim may have heard a “crack” or “snap”

What are the 5 procedures for properly handling a fracture or suspected fracture?
1) Do not attempt to straighten broken limbs
2) Protect and immobilize injured areas
3) Check pulse in area of fracture
4) Use a splint, leaving fingers and toes exposed
5) Treat for shock

How many bones are in the human body?
206

What are the 5 causes of burns?
1) Thermal
2) Chemical
3) Sunburn
4) Electric shock
5) Radiation

What are first-degree burns?
Mildest form of burns, involves only the outer layer of skin, produces redness, increased warmth, tenderness, and mild pain

What are second-degree burns?
Extend through outer layers of skin and involve the inner layers of skin, produce blisters, severe pain, redness, and warmth

What are third-degree burns?
Penetrate the full-thickness of skin, destroying the inner and outer layers; severe pain may be absent due to the nerve endings being destroyed; color may range from white and lifeless to black (charred)

What are some indications of burns to the respiratory tract?
Singed eyelashes, hoarseness, sore throat, coughing of blood

What is the MK-127?
Parachute Illumination Signal

At what altitudes does the MK-127 reach?
650-700 ft

When the MK-127 ignites, what does it display?
A white star flare

How long does the MK-127 last?
Burns for about 36 seconds

What is the candlepower of the MK-127?
125,000

How fast does the MK-127 descend?
10-15 ft per second

What is the purpose of the MK-127?
Illuminate a search area

How is the MK-127 launched?
1. Hold signal in left hand with the red band of the signal facing up
2. Align left thumb and forefinger along red band
3. Withdraw firing cap from lower end of the signal
4. Point the ejection end (opposite of red band) away from body and push the cap onto the primer (red band) until the cap meets the edge of the red band
5. Do not let the cap go beyond the red band
6. Hold signal with left hand with ejection facing up at a 90-degree angle from the body
7. Strike the firing cap with right hand, keeping the left arm rigid
8. If a misfire occurs, secure in a position out of harm’s way and wait at least 30 minutes before touching it again; jettison if underway

What is cavitation?
Occurs when the prop rotates at very high speeds and a partial vacuum forms air bubbles at the tips of the prop blades; frequently occurs when backing with outboard motors

At what water depth does the pyro vest inflate?
3 ft

When is the helmet required to be worn by crew members?
Speeds over 25 knots
Seas greater than 4 ft
When coxswain deems necessary

What is the color and number of the buoy off of Throggs Neck bridge?
R “48”
Fl R 4s
BELL

What are the 3 conditions of the anchor?
1. Fair
2. Fouled
3. Shawed

What are the scopes for the anchor?
For fair to moderate weather, 3-5x depth of the water
For severe weather, 5-7x depth of the water

What does it mean when the anchor is at short stay?
The anchor is directly below the boat on the bottom

What is our AOR?
Hells Gate to Matinecock Point to Byram Point

What is AOR 1?
Hells Gate to Twin Island and Elm Point

What is AOR 2?
Twin Island and Elm Point to Prospect Point and Larchmont Harbor

What is AOR 3?
Prospect Point and Larchnont Harbor to Byram Point and Matinecock Point

What is the formula for determining safe towing speed?
1.34 x square root of the length at the waterline minus 10%

What is catenary?
The dip in the towline

What does catenary do?
Act as a shock absorber

What is being “in step”?
When the towed vessel and towing vessel are creating at the same time

During a loss of steering BECCE, how many turns of the helm should the coxswain be able to perform from port to starboard and vice versa?
5

What is the minimum number of turns that must be left on the tow reel?
4

What is variation?
The angular difference between true and magnetic north

What causes deviation?
Metallic masses on the boat which cause a magnetic compass to give false readings

What is the last buoy in our AOR?
Green can 21

What is it called when a tug fits into a barge?
Composite tow

A composite tow is considered a _(2)_ vessel.
Power driven

How long does the B1 fire extinguisher last?
9-10 secs

How many tie downs does the P-6 pump require?
1 (although we keep 2 in the gear bag)

How long does the floating electric marker light last?
A minimum of 36 hours of continuous operation

Compression depth for adults, children, and infants during CPR
2 arms, 1.5 to 2 inches
1 arm, 1/3 to 1/2 chest depth
2 fingers, 1/3 to 1/2 chest depth

How large of a search radius does the MK-127 illuminate?
About 1 mile

Cavitation
The natural slip of a propeller through water

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