-escape the drought conditions in Oklahoma.
-plant, cultivate, and harvest crops in the state’s agricultural fields.
-call attention to the difficult conditions endured by the state’s migrant workers.
-organize the state’s agricultural workers.
The government sent 20,000 pounds of food to the camp.
It worked to ensure that migrant workers were protected by the agricultural programs of the New Deal.
It rewarded Dorothea Lange for bringing the crisis to the nation’s attention.
The government transported the stranded migrants to other camps in California where they could find work.
Roosevelt had served as the Republican mayor of New York City.
He had gained political experience as he worked his way through college.
He had served as President Wilson’s assistant secretary of the navy and as governor of New York.
Roosevelt had been lieutenant governor and then a two-term the governor of New Jersey.
appeal to the wealthy for financial support.
choose a city boss as his running mate.
make difficult concessions to labor unions in the East and Midwest.
unite Democrats from the Northeast, South, and West.
The New Freedom
The Square Deal
The Works Progress Program
The New Deal
Franklin Delano Roosevelt won with only a bare majority of the popular and electoral college votes.
For the first time in American history the Socialist and Communist Party candidates made a huge showing.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote, and Democrats swept both houses of Congress.
It was the first time that a majority of African Americans cast their votes for a Democratic candidate.
Fascist aggression in Germany
Nationalist expansion in Japan
His paralysis from polio
The terror caused by the depression
Experiment, Energy, and Employment
Workers’ rights, unemployment relief, and civil rights
Relief, recovery, and reform
Coalition, compromise, and capitalism
Mary McLeod Bethune
Socialism held the solution to the nation’s economic crisis.
Overconsumption was the greatest flaw in America’s capitalist economy.
Government intervention in big business was bad business.
Capitalism held the solution to the nation’s economic crisis.
bringing back the gold standard.
ending banks’ dependence on holding companies. I
nationalizing U.S. savings and loan associations.
releasing federal funds to bolster the banks’ assets.
The FDIC was one of Herbert Hoover’s only effective responses to bank failures.
It guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed.
The FDIC was an emergency measure Roosevelt passed to close the nation’s banks until they were solvent again.
It was a system through which the federal government would deposit money into regional banks to strengthen them.
Roosevelt held daily press conferences at the White House.
Roosevelt broadcast his reassuring fireside chats on the radio.
He strong-armed Congress to pass all the bills his administration proposed.
He issued unemployment checks to needy families.
Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
Security and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Social Security Administration (SSA)
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
provide work for young women so that they could help their families.
give young men government jobs conserving natural resources.
make use of surplus food donated by farmers to pay the working poor.
establish federally funded recycling programs to conserve natural resources.
It was created to establish a successful partnership between private utilities and the federal government.
The TVA helped supply jobs and power to impoverished rural communities.
It was a financial aid program that made low-interest loans available to small businesses.
The TVA was an agricultural assistance program designed to help farmers recoup their losses.
expanding railroad lines to make travel and trade easier for rural Americans.
establishing programs to facilitate the opening of new overseas markets overseas for farmers surplus crops.
initiating federal oversight to ensure that sharecroppers and tenant farmers received a fair share of government benefits.
providing electricity to rural communities through the Rural Electrification Administration.
The acts established programs that accelerated the rate of farm foreclosures to eradicate unproductive farms.
They initiated programs to pay farmers for their surplus crops so they could be used to feed people in developing countries.
The acts paid farmers not to grow crops and provided long-term credit on mortgaged farm property.
They provided benefits to sharecroppers and tenant farmers who were being squeezed by their landlords.
Large businesses that employed more workers were excluded from the agency’s charge.
The codes written by industry leaders tended to serve the interests of corporations only.
The code system was so complicated that neither the government nor the corporations could interpret it effectively.
The government’s NRA public relations campaign actually discouraged Americans from patronizing NRA businesses.
some labor leaders.
the League of Women Voters.
workers in the Civilian Conservation Corps.
Business leaders withdrew their companies from the NRA.
The Supreme Court ruled that the agency was unconstitutional.
Labor leaders marched on Washington to protest the agency.
Congress refused to fund the agency’s budget.
Farm Credit Bureau.
Federal Emergency Relief Act.
Social Security Act.
Agricultural Adjustment Act.
Southern farmers’ loan applications weren’t processed correctly.
Southern states didn’t participate in these New Deal programs.
Landlords controlled the distribution of the benefits and denied benefits to many of their tenants.
Tenant farmers didn’t qualify for these assistance programs because they didn’t own the land they farmed.
Communists, bankers, and capitalists.
impoverished immigrants who taxed cities’ resources.
prohibition, which weakened the liquor industry.
the redistribution of income through taxation.
government-sponsored health care.
the redistribution of wealth through revolution.
work relief for the poor and unemployed.
reduce government involvement in business.
enact new programs to desegregate the South.
enact major new social welfare programs.
reduce government involvement in social welfare.
Civil Works Administration
Works Progress Administration
National Labor Relations Board
American Humanities Commission
create the National Labor Relations Board and guarantee workers the right to organize.
protect workers’ right to strike by making it impossible for corporations to fire strikers.
give the president the right to intervene in and mediate intractable labor disputes.
raise workers’ standards of living by guaranteeing a minimum wage.
The American Federation of Labor
The Committee for Industrial Organization
The National Labor Union
The National Association of Manufacturers Workers
holding the mangers of the plant hostage.
destroying the plant’s assembly lines.
staging a sit-down strike.
organizing a massive walkout.
Republic Steel made the United Steelworkers Union the sole bargaining unit for all of the company’s workers.
Steelworkers won the biggest wage increase ever recorded in the industry.
Steelworkers’ frustrations led them to tear up the railroad tracks that led to the plant.
Strikers halted their organizing campaign after the police attacked and killed ten of them.
through a progressive tax on workers.
with tax contributions from workers and their employers.
by raising income taxes on the wealthiest Americans. I
through the federal government’s general tax fund.
old-age pensions, grants to states for dependent mothers and children, and unemployment insurance.
national health insurance for poor adults, uninsured children, and the elderly.
death and disability benefits for those who were killed or injured on the job.
minimum wages, vacation benefits, and health insurance for federal government employees.
The New Deal reduced the average national unemployment rate to 5 percent by 1935.
The New Deal created millions of jobs but had little effect on unemployment because layoffs continued throughout the decade.
The programs reduced the average unemployment rate, but it remained high, at about 17 percent, through the 1930s.
The programs allowed the federal government to serve as the employer of last resort, thereby reducing average unemployment rates to near zero.
Roosevelt was too busy with programs for workers and farmers.
He could not afford to lose the support of southern Democrats for his New Deal agenda.
He was unmoved by African Americans’ circumstances and not concerned about civil rights.
Roosevelt was afraid of creating disorder in the South by disturbing the balance of power between blacks and white landowners.
Mexican Americans found it easy to integrate into American society.
They experienced substantially less discrimination in New Deal programs than did other minority groups.
Mexican Americans experienced a dramatic increase in wages through employment in New Deal programs.
Thousands of Mexican Americans were deported, many with their American-born children.
The act provided economic aid and other forms of assistance to help Indians in poverty.
It forced Native Americans back onto the reservations they had left after the passage of the Dawes Act in 1887.
It restored Indians’ right to own land communally and have greater control over their own affairs.
The act strengthened the federal government’s policy of assimilation by dispersing concentrated populations of Indians.
Many radicals denounced it for failing to serve the interests of workers and their families.
They pronounced it fascistic and called for the impeachment of President Roosevelt.
Radicals dismissed it as inadequate and openly called for the overthrow of capitalism.
They had begun to support the New Deal’s relief programs and its encouragement of labor unions.
the heirs of Alexander Hamilton and the heirs of Thomas Jefferson.
the North and the South.
the protectors of democracy and the supporters of fascism.
the New Deal’s Popular Front and the business community’s Reclaim America movement.
The apathy of most Republican voters
The Republican Party’s inability to disseminate its message
The New Deal’s extreme popularity among American voters
The old age and poor health of his opponent, Alf Landon
was extremely popular with conservatives.
was popularly known as court packing.
was widely accepted by Congress and the American public.
would allow Roosevelt to take his ideas directly to the American people.
became unnecessary when four conservative judges retired.
faced great opposition but was ultimately successful.
was ruled unconstitutional by the sitting Supreme Court justices.
was ratified by Congress but not by the required number of states.
made it easier for Americans to borrow money.
cut funds for relief projects and decreased deficit spending.
made the difficult decision to maintain the gold standard.
increased funding for relief projects to help unemployed women and their children.
Unemployment figures dropped.
The country returned to normalcy.
The country suffered a recession.
Conservative opposition to the New Deal lessened.
government intervention is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money into the economy to revive production and increase consumption.
a balanced budget is an absolute prerequisite for stopping inflation and creating long-term economic stability.
the principle of laissez-faire failed in the nineteenth century but is essential to a healthy U.S. economy in the twentieth century.
the theory of supply and demand can be used to revive production and increase consumption throughout the nation.
help farmers invest in the lucrative securities market.
help tenant farmers become independent landowners.
take the place of the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
encourage crop surpluses of nonperishable grains to be stored in case of national emergency.
It provided jobs for all able-bodied workers.
It was often called the Time and Money Act.
It set standards for wages and hours.
It explicitly exempted women.
• The public reacted to new social programs with apathy.
• There was a nearly 60 percent turnover in President Roosevelt’s cabinet.
• Republicans gained seven seats in the Senate and eighty in the House in the congressional elections.
• Roosevelt was unable to gain support for his plan to nationalize banking and agriculture.
It prevented the United States from turning toward authoritarian solutions to the nation’s economic crisis.
The New Deal ended the depression and eliminated the class hierarchy in the United States.
The New Deal weakened presidential power and strengthened the military-industrial complex.
It ended the depression and led directly to the United States’ involvement in World War II.
Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria.
Italy, Japan, and Russia.
Italy, Japan, and Germany.
Germany, Finland, and Austria.
the United States should stay out of Europe’s internal affairs.
the United States should cease trading with Latin America.
international amity was the key to ending the depression.
free trade was necessary for America’s domestic prosperity.
form a less belligerent, more cooperative relationship with Latin America.
acknowledge that the United States had damaged Latin American economies and to repay those countries billions of dollars.
buy property and raw materials from Latin American nations instead of sending in troops to take those resources.
drop restrictions on immigration to the United States from Latin America.
The federal government could not afford to mount military efforts to defeat and remove them.
Somoza and Batista had private support from U.S. businessmen and tacit support from the Roosevelt administration.
They received overt support from European business interests who depended on the imports of their products.
They received open military support from the Roosevelt administration and the British diplomatic corps.
Fascist regimes the world over had worked in league from the very beginning to undermine democracy.
The greed of American munitions makers, bankers, and financiers was responsible for the nation’s entry into World War I.
The nations that still owed money to the United States because of World War I would probably never pay.
The United States had made the wrong decision when it decided to back Allies rather than the Central Powers in World War I.
end the Great Depression in the United States and Europe.
prevent increasing American involvement in European affairs.
encourage the aggression of German and Japanese militarists in Europe and the Pacific.
stop German and Japanese aggression in Europe and the Pacific.
a group of African Americans who volunteered to fight against Hitler in Germany.
a coalition of newspaper editors who cooperated to denounce fascism in their publications.
a group of Americans who enlisted to fight with the Spanish Republicans against the Nationalist rebels in Spain.
a group of American Republicans that formed to support Franklin Roosevelt’s increasing involvement in Europe.
Hitler’s invasion of Poland
The U.S. declaration of war against Germany
The end of Hitler’s aggression in Europe
England’s confirmation of the effectiveness of appeasement
Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1937
Germany’s invasion of the Sudetenland in 1938
Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935
Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939
a treacherous stretch of the Alps that separated France from Germany.
a racing section of the Rhine River that was difficult to ford.
a concrete fortification that separated much of France from Germany.
a stand of dense forest that separated much of France from Germany.
The British victory handed Hitler his first major defeat.
It ended with England’s occupation by Germany.
It proved that Great Britain no longer needed U.S. assistance.
The battle emboldened the French to expel occupying German forces.
lend France enough money to defeat the Germans.
make arms, munitions, and other supplies available to Britain.
lend large sums of money to Latin American countries.
give arms, munitions and supplies to Canada.
by appealing to Americans’ fiscal conservatism and pro-business ethos.
with an appeal to Americans’ long-held belief that the nation should avoid alliances with European powers.
by citing the need to defend freedom of speech, freedom to worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear, and other ideals.
by chastising Americans for the isolationism in the 1920s and 1930s and illustrating its consequences.
declare the Atlantic Ocean off-limits to the Third Reich and its allies.
suspend all shipping between the two countries and only let naval vessels foreign waters.
protect the freedom of the seas, free trade, and the right of national self-determination.
take over leadership of the League of Nations for the duration of the wars in Europe and Asia.
form a defensive alliance among imperial powers.
cooperate in an attack against the United States.
advance the principles of democracy in Europe and Asia.
establish the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
knock out a significant portion of American naval bases in the Pacific.
demonstrate that the United States could not possibly win a war against an Asian nation
demonstrate to the Germans that Japan had its own objectives in the Pacific.
retaliate against the United States for the incarceration of Japanese citizens.
Proponents of neutrality in the United States stepped up their appeals in Congress to keep the nation out of war.
Congress endorsed President Roosevelt’s call for a declaration of war.
Hitler and Mussolini offered to negotiate a peace on behalf of Japan.
Japan’s emperor issued an official apology and a pledge to stay out of American territory.
the government had evidence that Japanese Americans were a threat to national security.
a large number of people believed that Japanese Americans were potential sources of espionage and subversion.
the government wanted to use strategically placed prison camps to prevent Japan from launching an air attack on the West Coast.
any male members of their families had refused to register for the draft.
They were largely uninterested in serving in the armed forces.
The government discouraged ethnic minorities from serving in the armed forces.
They fought in large numbers in the armed forces despite discriminatory treatment.
They were barred from serving in the armed forces during the first two years of the war.
Business leaders who were paid enormous amounts for their efforts
Members of Roosevelt’s Brains Trust
Business leaders who were paid almost nothing for their efforts
High-ranking military officials who knew the needs of the military best
The labor unions agreed to disband temporarily in order to focus on production.
They demanded increases in overtime pay for the duration of the war.
They volunteered to enlist one half of their workers in the armed forces.
Labor unions granted the government’s request that they pledge not to strike.
proceed slowly and cautiously in the conflict with the United States.
launch an all-out air assault on the western coast of the United States as soon as possible.
quickly conquer and secure Japan’s targets, before the United States could mobilize its manpower and resources.
conserve Japan’s limited manpower and resources by taking no prisoners of war.
U.S. soldiers herded thousands of captured Japanese soldiers into a prison camp on Wake Island.
Japanese soldiers forced U.S. and Filipino soldiers to march sixty-five miles to a concentration camp.
Japanese soldiers marched one hundred miles to meet an advancing force of American soldiers.
a small detachment of American soldiers marched to the coast hoping to be rescued by the U.S. Navy.
the Japanese force in the Pacific was almost unbeatable.
the current Japanese strategy was working.
the war in the Pacific was ending.
Japanese domination of the Pacific was weakening.
announced that Germany, when it lost the war, would again be forced to pay reparations.
vowed that they would soon open a second front in Russia.
announced that they would accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany and Italy.
decided not to launch a significant attack anywhere in the Mediterranean region.
The landing was a disastrous defeat for the Allies.
It was the first Allied encounter with Italian armed forces
It was the start of what would become the French campaign.
The landing marked the end of Mussolini’s fascism.
They were primarily single women.
Most of them were married without children.
Most of them were married with children.
Most participating women were widowed or divorced.
planting Victory Gardens of home-grown vegetables.
conserving electricity and coal in order to fuel defense plants.
maintaining and running Catholic and Protestant churches.
providing meals for soldiers at nearby army bases.
Thomas Dewey in the presidential election of 1944.
Republicans in Congress.
African Americans fighting racial prejudice at home.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the presidential election of 1944.
making equal rights for women his top priority.
authorizing the Committee on Fair Employment Practices.
promising not to seek a fifth term as president.
promising to limit the number of minorities in top government positions.
Equal employment opportunities
Equal pay for equal work
Widespread racial violence
The nation’s gratitude
The agencies’ longtime inefficiency and lack of relevance
The increasing strength of the conservative coalition
A resurgence of Democratic power in the U.S. government
The end of unemployment in America
American military officials believed it was Stalin’s job to address the issue.
The American public and its officials believed the reports were exaggerated.
Stalin threatened to withdraw from the fight against Germany if the United States addressed the issue.
The United States did not believe it was fighting the war to protect human rights.
the final solution.
the Battle of the Bulge.
postwar self-determination for the people of Eastern Europe.
Allied support for Mao Zedong as the leader of China.
strengthening the League of Nations.
plans to prosecute Adolf Hitler for international war crimes.
The United States had about 1 million casualties and the USSR had 3 million.
The United States had 2 million casualties and the USSR had 5 million.
The United States had about 250,000 casualties and the USSR had about 2.5 million.
The United States had about 136,000 casualties and the USSR had 9 million.
Allied bombers leveled Hamburg.
Allied bombers leveled Berlin.
Adolf Hitler killed himself in his underground bunker.
Adolf Hitler surrendered to the Allied military forces.
The United States could not win a decisive military victory against Japan.
It would be extremely costly and difficult to defeat Japan.
The marines in the Pacific lacked coordination.
The United States needed the British navy to win an all-out military campaign in the Pacific.
the Japanese were forced to abandon a huge supply depot.
they planned to make it the launching site for an attack on the Japanese mainland.
it was the training center for all new Japanese kamikaze pilots.
thousands of U.S. prisoners of war were being held there.
demonstrate the bravery of Japanese airmen at a crucial point in the war.
fly supplies to Japanese battleships throughout the Pacific.
defend Okinawa from U.S. troops.
serve as decoys for Japanese bombers.
Roosevelt was planning an attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The United States planned to attack the Soviet Union after the war.
Japan was working on a similar weapon.
They didn’t want the Germans to develop one first.
because it wanted to kill as many Japanese civilians as possible.
because the first bomb did not lead to a Japanese surrender to the United States.
to demonstrate America’s power to the China’s communists and stop their aggression.
because Nagasaki was the center of Japan’s wartime military and government operations.