US History Chp 23 The New Deal

Civil Works Administration (CWA)
1933 hire four million unemployed workers, terminated in 1934; enabled men to get jobs repairing typewriters and sewing machines

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
known popularly as FDR, 2 term governor of New York and distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt; beat Hoover by 23 million to 16 million votes; “can-do” attitude; Election of 1932
– inaugurated in March 1933, 4 months after election
– stricken with polio paralyzed from the waist down

Election of 1932
FDR vs. Hoover; FDR wins by large majority;
-senate Democrats claimed 2/3 majority
-3/4 seats of the house
-greatest Democratic victory since before the Civil War

20th amendment
-moved inauguration date from March after presidential election held in November to January
-ratified February 1933 and did not apply to 1932 presidential election

Brain Trust
FDR advisers that were professors, lawyers and journalists who started working before he was inaugurated to come up with policies for his new administration

New Deal
phrase taken from a campaign speech in which “Roosevelt had promised “a new deal for the American people.”; FDR’s program designed to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression
– Focused on 3 goals
1. relief for the needy
2. economic recovery
3. financial reform

the Hundred Days
lasted from March 9, 1933 to June 16, 1933
-Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation
-these laws and others that followed greatly increased the Fed. Govts. role in the nation’s economy

Eleanor Roosevelt
-niece of Theodore Roosevelt and distant cousin of her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt
– presented booklet on human rts. to United Nations in 1958
-outspoken on controversial subjects such as child welfare, housing reform, and equal rts. for women

bank holiday
-declared by FDR on March 5, one day after taking office to close banks to keep people from withdrawing any more $ since people had lost faith in the banking system

Emergency Banking Relief Act
– authorized the Treasury Dept. to inspect the country’s banks
– banks that were sound could immediately reopen
-banks that were insolvent -unable to pay their debts- would remain closed
– banks that needed help could receive loans
– this measure restored public confidence in banks

fireside chats
-FDR’s first radio talk about public concerns took place on March 12, 2015
-1st chat explained why the nation’s welfare depended on public support of the govt. and the banking system
“When you deposit money into a bank the bank does not put the money in a safe deposit vault. It invests your money…A comparatively small part of the money that you put in the bank is kept in currency –an amount which in normal times is wholly sufficient to cover the cash needs of the average citizen.” FDR; when too many people demand their savings in cash, banks would fail, not b/c they were weak but could not meet such heavy demands
– therefore many Americans returned their savings to banks

Glass-Stegall Act of 1933
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
established by the Glass-Stegall Act in 1933
-provided federal insurance for individual bank accounts up to $5,000
-reassured millions of Americans that their $ was safe
-required banks to act cautiously with their customer’s money

Federal Securities Act of 1933
-passed in May 1933 to regulate the stock market
-required corporations to provide complete information on stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentation
-June 1934, Congress created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate the stock market

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
-created June 1934
-created to regulate the stock market
-one goal of the SEC was to prevent people with inside information from “rigging” the stock market for their own profit

Regulation of alcohol
-FDR persuaded Congress to approve a bill allowing the manufacture and sale of some alcoholic beverages for the purpose of raise govt. revenues by taxing alcohol

21st ammendment
-by end of 1933 repealed prohibition altogether

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
-sought to raise crop prices by lowering production, which the govt. achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of every acre of land unseeded
-theory was that reduced supply would boost prices
-in come cases the govt. paid farmers to plow under cotton fields or slaughter pics
-govt. paid cotton growers $200 million to plow under 10 million acres
-govt. paid hog farmers to slaughter 6 million pigs
– policy upset many people who thought it was criminal to destroy food when so many people were going hungry
– it did help raise farm prices and put more $ in farmers’ pockets

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933
-est. May 1933
-renovating 5 existing dams and constructed 20 new ones, created 1000s of jobs, and provided flood control, hydroelectric power, and other benefits to an impoverished region

2 examples of New Deal Rural Assistance
1. Agricultural Adjustment (AAA)- plan to reduce supply to boost prices
2. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2 examples of Providing Work Projects
1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
2. Public Works Administration (PWA) created in June 1933 by the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
-provided almost 3 million men aged 18-25 with work and wages between 1933 and 1942
-men lived in work campus under a strict regime; the majority of the camps were racially segregated
– by 1938, CCC had 11% African-American enrollment
– planted over 3 billion trees
– developed over 800 state parks
– built more than 46,000 bridges

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
-created Public Works Administration (PWA) in June 1933
-provided $ to states to create jobs in construction of schools and other public buildings
– when it failed to make a sufficient dent in unemployment, FDR established the Civil Works Administration (CWA) in Nov. 1933
-sought to promote industrial growth by establishing codes of fair practice for individual industries
– created the National Recovery Administration (NRA)
– section of the NIRA guaranteed worker’s right to unionize and to bargain collectively

Civil Works Administration (CWA)
-established by FDR in Nov. 1933
– provided 4 million immediate jobs during the winter of 1933-1934
– some critics claimed programs were “make-work” projects and a waste of $
– built 40,000 schools and paid salaries of more than 50k teachers in America’s rural areas
-built more than half a million miles of roads

National Recovery Administration (NRA)
-set prices of many products and established standards
-aim of NRA was to promote recovery by interrupting the trend of wage cuts, falling prices, and layoffs

Gardiner C. Means
attempted to justify the NRA
-said the NRA was created in response to an overwhelming demand from many quarters that certain elements in the making of an industrial policy ….should no longer be left to the market place and the price mechanism but should be placed in the hands of administrative bodies”

Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
provided govt. loans to homeowners who face foreclosure because they couldn’t pay their loan payments

1934 National Housing Act
1. created Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
established by the 1934 National Housing Act
-agency continues to furnish loans for home mortgages and repairs today

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
-was founded with $500million to provide direct relief for the needy
– 1/2 of the money was given to the states as direct grants-in-aid to help furnish food and clothing to the unemployed, the aged and the ill
– rest of the money was given to states to support work relief programs – for every $3 within the state program, FERA donated $1
-led by Harry Hopkins

Harry Hopkins
leader of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
– believed whereas $ helped people buy food, meaningful work enabled them to gain confidence and self-respect

Deficit spending
spending more $ than the govt. receives in revenue
– FDR believed it was a necessary evil to be used only in a time of great economic crisis

Growing opposition to the New Deal
-began in some parts of the population
– the New Deal did not end the depression
– liberal critics believed the New Deal did not go far enough to help the poor and reform the nation’s economic system
– conservatives believed that acts such as the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the National Industrial Recovery Act gave too much control to the federal govt.
– many believed the New Deal interfered with the workings of a free-market economy

Supreme Court reacts to New Deal
-2 supreme court decisions in 1935 and 1936
1. striking down the NIRA as unconstitutional- declaring that the law gave the legislative powers to the executive branch and that the enforcement of industry codes within states went beyond the federal government’s constitutional powers to regulate interstate commerce
2. struck down the AAA on the grounds that agriculture is a local matter and should be regulated by the states rather than by the federal govt.

How does FDR react to his fears that the Supreme Court might dismantle the New Deal?
-Feb. 1937 proposes that Congress enact a court-reform bill to reorganize the federal judiciary and allow him to appoint 6 new supreme court justices (greatly opposed by congress and the press)
– many people believed FDR was violating principles of judicial independence and separation of powers
– FDR got to appoint new liberal justices because one elderly justice retired in 1937 and over the next 4 yrs, FDR was able to appoint 7 new justices

Hugo S. Black
liberal judge appointed by FDR in 1937 to replace an elderly judge who resigned
-appointment shifted the balance of the court so that rulings of the court began to favor the New Deal

NLRB vs. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
-1936, the Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation was charged with intimidating union organizers and firing several union members
-the National Labor Relation Board (NLRB) found the company guilty of “unfair labor practices” and ordered it to rehire the workers with back pay
RULING: Supreme Court ruled that Congress had the power to regulate labor relations and confirmed the authority of the NLRB/Wagner Act
-Jones and Laughlin Steel argued that its manufacturing business did not involve interstate commerce– it operated a plant and hired people locally
– the Supreme Court disagreed– stating that production itself may occur within one state, it said, production is a part of the interstate “flow of commerce”
-if labor unrest at a steel mill would create “burdens and obstructions” to interstate commerce, then Congress has the power to prevent labor unrest at the steel mill

1935 National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
congress claimed its authority to regulate labor relations came from the commerce clause of the Constitution;

What was the historical impact of the Wagner Act?
protection that labor unions gained made them grow quickly
-union membership among non-farm workers grew from around 12% in 1930 to around 31% by 1950
– increase helped improve the economic standing of many working-class Americans in the years following WWII
-Jones and Laughlin greatly broadened Congress’s power
to control large corporations and holding companies doing business in many states
-Congress gained the power to regulate anything “essential or appropriate”
– for example laws barring discrimination in hotels and restaurants rests on the court’s allowing Congress to decide what is an “essential or appropriate” subject of regulation

United States V. Lopez (1995)
Supreme Court struck down a law that banned people from having a handgun near a school; the Court said Congress was not justified in basing this law on its power to regulate interstate commerce (recent change in ruling by the supreme court regarding congress’s power to regulate from the more liberal rulings during FDR’s time)

American Liberty League
3 fiery critics (conservatives) of the New Deal who banded together
-believed New Deal violated respect for the rights of individuals and property

3 men who expressed views that appealed to poor Americans that criticized FDR
1. Charles Coughlin -Roman Catholic Priest in Detroit
2. Dr. Francis Townsend – physician and health officer in Long Beach, California
3. Senator Huey Long- Louisiana

Charles Couglin
Roman Catholic Priest from Detroit who broadcast radio sermons that combined economic, political and religious ideas who initially supported the New Deal but turned against FDR
– he favored a guaranteed annual income and the nationalization of banks
– became increasingly anti-semitic (Jewish) cost him his popularity

Dr. Francis Townsend
Long Beach California
-physician and health officer who believed FDR wasn’t doing enough to help the poor and elderly so he devised a pension plan that would provide monthly benefits to the aged

Senator Huey Long
-early on supported the New Deal
– turned against FDR eager to win presidency himself
-proposed a nationwide social program called “Share-Our-Wealth” under the banner “Every Man a King” promising something for everyone
-was assassinated

Federal Securities Act of 1933

Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes
in NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp. 1937
-“Long ago we … said … that a single employee was hopeless in dealing with an employer; that he was dependent … on his daily wage for maintenance of himself and family; that, if the employer refused to pay him the wages that he thought were fair, he was … unable to leave the employ and resist arbitrary and unfair treatment; that union was essential to give laborers opportunity to deal on and equality with their employer

New Deal Employment Projects- List 6 and what they did
1. Civilian Conservative Corps (CCC) – provided jobs for single males on conservation projects
2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) – Helped states to provide aid for the unemployed.
3. Public Works Administration (PWA) – Created jobs on govt. projects
4. Civil Works Administration (CWA) – Provided work in federal jobs
5. Works Progress Administration (WPA) – Quickly created as many jobs as possible – from construction jobs to positions in symphony orchestras
6. National Youth Administration (NYA) – Provided job training for unemployed young people and part-time jobs for needy students

New Deal Business Assistant and Reform – List 6 and what they did
1. Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA) – Banks were inspected by Treasury Dept. and stable banks reopened
2. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) – Protected bank deposits up to $5,000. (Today up to $250,000)
3. National Recovery Administration (NRA) – Established codes of fair competition
4. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – Supervised the stock mkt and eliminated dishonest practices such as insider trading
5. Banking Act of 1935 – created 7-member board to regulate the nation’s money supply and the interest rates on loans
6. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDC) – Required manufacturers to list ingredients in foods, drugs, and cosmetic products.

New Deal Farm Relief and Rural Development (List 3 and tell what they did)
1. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)- Aided farmers and regulated crop production
2. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – Developed the resources of the Tennessee Valley
3. Rural Electrification Administration (REA) – Provided affordable electricity for isolated rural areas

New Deal Housing (List 3 and tell what they did)
1. Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) -Loaned money at low interest to homeowners who could not meet mortgage payments
2. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) – Insured loans for building and repairing homes
3. United States Housing Authority (USHA) – Provided federal loans for low-cost public works

New Deal Labor Relations (List 2 and tell what they did)
1. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)/Wagner Act – Defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employers and employees
2. Fair Labor Standards Act – Established a minimum hourly wage and a maximum number of hours in the workweek for the entire country. Set rules for the employment of workers under 16 and banned hazardous factory work for those under 18.

New Deal Retirement (List 1 and tell what it did)
1935 – Social Security Administration – Provided a pension for retired workers and their spouses and aided people with disabilities

The 2nd 100 Days
-Roosevelt saw that more needed to be done b/c unemployment remained high and production still lagged behind levels of the 1920s

Elanor Roosevelt
FDR’s wife
-social reformer who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skills
-reminded FDR about the suffering of the American people
-urged FDR to appoint women to govt. positions

1936 presidential election
FDR Democrat vs. Alred Land Gov. of Kansas Republican
-FDR, and both dem house and dem senate won by overwhelmingly majority

John Steinbeck
author of “GRAPES OF WRATH” – story about a tenant farmer and his family

Supreme Court and the 1935 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
-early 1936 AAA struck down by Supreme court but congress replaced it with the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Congress passed this to replace the AAA or Agricultural Adjustment after it was struck down by the Supreme Court
– paid farmers for cutting production of soil depleting crops
– rewarded farmers for practicing good soil conservation methods

2nd AAA 1938 Agricultural Adjustment Act
-brought back many features of the 1st AAA
– 2nd AAA did not include a processing tax to pay for farm subsidies that the Supreme Court had determined to be unconstitutional

Resettlement Administration
-created by executive order in 1935
-provided monetary loans to small farmers to buy land
– 1937 was replaced by the Farm Security Administration (FSA)

Farm Security Administration (FSA)
-replaced the Resettlement Administration
– loaned more than 1billion to help tenant farmers become landholders and established camps for migrant farm workers, who had traditionally lived in squalid housing
– hired photographers like Dorothea Lange to document plight of migrant workers in America

Dorothea Lange
Dorothea Lange
photographer “Migrant Mother” used to promote awareness of terrible conditions for migrant workers
-hired by the FSA (Farm Security Administration)

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
-bet. 193-1943 spent $11 billion to give jobs to more than 8 million workers, most of them unskilled
– 850 airports built
-651,000 miles road were constructed or repaired
-more than 125,000 public buildings put up
– women made more than 300 million garments for the needy
– employed many professionals who wrote guides to cities
– employed many professionals who collected historical slave narratives
-painted murals on school walls and other public buildings
– performed in theatre troupes around the country

National Youth Administration (NYA)
-created specifically to provide education, jobs, counseling, and recreation for young people
– provided student aid to high school, college and graduate students
-in exchange for aid, students worked in part-time positions at their schools
-provided part-time jobs for graduates and drop out students who were unable to find a job (including working on highways, parks, and the grounds of public buildings)

Supreme Court and the NIRA (National Industrial Relations Act)
-declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court in 1935 citing the federal govt. had violated legislative authority reserved for individual states
– in second New Deal it was replaced with the passage of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) or WAGNER ACT

Wagner Act
-reestablished the NIRA provision for collective bargaining
-prohibited unfair labor practices such as threatening workers, firing union members, and interfering with union organizing
– set up the NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD (NLRB) to hear testimony about unfair practices and tho hold elections to find out if workers wanted union representation

1938 Fair Labor Standards Act
-set max. work hours at 44 hrs./wk, decreasing to 40 hours after 2 yrs.
-set min. wage at $.25/hr., increasing to $.40/hr by 1945
-set rules for employment of workers under 16 and banned hazardous work for those under 18

1935 Social Security Act
-committee chaired by Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
– 3 major parts:
1. Old-age insurance for retirees 65 or older and their spouses (supplemental retirement plan) with 1/2 of funds coming from the worker and 1/2 from the employer
2. Unemployment compensation system – funded by a federal tax on employers but administered at the state level with initial pymts ranging from $15-$18/week
3. Aid to families with dependent children and people with disabilities – aid paid for by federal funds made available to the states
(not a total pension system or complete welfare system, it did provide substantial benefit to millions of Americans)

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935
took aim at financial corruption in the public utility industry
– outlawed the ownership of utilities by multiple holding companies– a practice known as the pyramiding of holding companies

Schechter Poultry Corp. V. United States 1935
Supreme Court stuck down the National Industrial Recover Act (this was later replaced with the National Labor Relations Act)

New Deal Impact on Women
-appts. to govt. positions
1. Frances Perkins – America’s 1st Female Cabinet Member who became SECRETARY OF LABOR
2. appt. of 2 female diplomats
3. appt. of a female federal judge
* Gallup poll taken in 1936 reported that 82% OF Americans believed a wife should not work outside the home if her husband had a job b/c women were taking away jobs from men
4. National Recovery Administration set wage codes with lower minimum wages for women than men
5. Civilian Conservation Corps hired only men

Frances Perkins 1882-1965
1st Female Cabinet member appointed by FDR
-Secretary of Labor who played major role in creating the Social Security System and supervised labor legislation
-after witnessing the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire in 1911 she vowed to fight for labor reforms
-changed her name from Fannie to Frances b/c she believed she would be taken more seriously in her work

A. Philip Randolph
African American who organized the countries 1st all-black trade union, the BROTHERHOOD OF THE SLEEPING CAR PORTERS; his work and that of others laid the groundwork for what would become the civil rights movement

Mary McLeod Bethune
African American woman educator appointed by FDR to head the DIVISION OF NEGRO AFFAIRS OF THE NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION
-worked to ensure that the NYA hired African-American administrators and provided job training and other benefits to minority students
-organized a “BLACK CABINET” of influential African Americans to advise the Roosevelt Administration on racial issues
– when AA singer Marian Anderson was not aloud to sing in the Daughters of the American Revolution Concert Hall in Washington D.C., Bethune made sure she sang on the steps of the LINCOLN MEMORIAL on Easter Sunday

African American Singer Marian Anderson
-not allowed to sing in the Daughters of the Revolution Concert Hall in Washington D.C. b/c of her race
– as result Eleanor Roosevelt resigned her membership
– Mary McLeod Bethune made sure she sang on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday

Why was FDR never fully committed to civil rights for African Americans and how did he show this?
-afraid of upsetting white Democratic voters in the South
-refused to approve anti-lynching law and an end to the poll tax both of which were 2 key goals of the civil rights movement
– # of New Deal agencies clearly discriminated against African Americans including the NRA, the CCC, and the TVA (these programs gave lower wages to African Americans and favored whites)

How did African Americans fight for their rights and to improve conditions that the New Deal ignored?
1. 1934 organized the Southern Tenant Farmers Union
2. in North, the union created tenant’s groups and launched campaigns to increase job opportunities

In general, what the response of most African Americans to FDR and the New Deal?
generally saw FDR and his New Deal as their best hope for the future

How were Mexican Americans treated by the New Deal?
-most were farm workers who saw their wages fall to $.09/hour; efforts to unionize were often met with violence from employers and govt. authorities;
– CCC and WPA helped some Mexican Americans but discriminated against them by disqualifying their programs for migrant workers who had no permanent address

How were Native Americans treated by the New Deal?
-received strong govt. support from the New Deal
-1924 NA had received full citizenship by law
-1933 FDR appointed John Collier as commissioner of Indian Affairs
-1934 John Collier helped create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

John Collier
1933 appointed by FDR as Commissioner of Indian Affairs
1934 Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

1934 Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (List 3 changes mandated by the act)
-extreme change in govt. policy towards NA autonomy
-helped to restore some reservation lands to tribal ownership
1. economic – NA lands would belong to the entire tribe; strengthened NA land claims by prohibiting the govt. from taking over unclaimed reservation lands and selling them to people other than NA
2. cultural – # of boarding schools for NA children was reduced, and children could attend school on the reservations
3. political – tribes were given permission to elect tribal councils to govern their reservations
* some NA who valued their tribal traditions like the act others who had already become more Americanized as individual land owners from the Dawes Act, objected b/c they were tired of white people telling them what to do

New Deal Coalition
created by FDR for alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the Democratic party
– included Southern Whites, various urban groups, African Americans, and unionized industrial workers
-as a result the Democrats dominated national politics throughout the 1930s and 1940s

Union membership between 1933-1941
-grew from less than 3 million to more than 10 million
-esp. affected coal miners and workers in mass-production industries, such as the automobile, rubber, and electrical industries
-struggle for dominance in the labor movement began to develop

Robert F. Wagner
Democratic senator from New York who was especially interested in worker’s welfare
-introduce the National Labor Relations Act in Congress in 1935 (Became known as the Wagner Act)

Conflict in Struggle for Dominance in the Labor Unions starting during the New Deal
1. American Federation of Labor (AFL) had traditionally been restricted to the craft unions, such as carpenters and electricians; most of the AFL leaders opposed industry-wide unions that represented all the workers in a given industry, such as automobile manufacturing
2. Opposition from Committee for Industrial Organization led by several key labor leaders in the AFL including John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers of America and David Dubinsky of the International Ladies Garment Workers,

Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
group led by John L. Lewis and David Dubinsky
-rapidly signed up unskilled and semi-skilled workers and within 2 yrs succeeded in gaining union recognition in the automobile and steel industries
-kicked out of the AFL in 1938 and changed it’s name to the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization)
– split between the AFl and CIO lasted until 1955

sit-down strike
main tactic of labor unions during the 1930s
-striking workers remained in the buildings keeping replacements from being able to come in and take over

1937 Republic Steel Strike/Memorial Day Massacre
– happened on Memorial Day
-10 people were killed and 84 wounded
-shortly after the National Labor Board stepped in and required the head of Republic Steel to negotiate with the union

culture in the 1930s
-approx. 65% population went to movies once a week
-over 15,000 movie theaters nationwide
-sales of radios went from just over 13 million in 1930 to 28 million in 1940
– almost 90% American households owned a radio

Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh
starred in Gone With the Wind

Gone with Wind
most famous film of the Depression Era 1939

Flying Down to Rio
1933 light romantic comedy featuring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers who went on to make many movies and become America’s favorite dance partners

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
1937 showcased the dazzling animation of Walt Disney

Monkey Business
1931 comedy

Duck Soup
1931 comedy starring the Marx Brothers

Little Caesar 1930 and The Public Enemy 1931
Gangster movies depicting an environment where Americans were struggling to succeed in a harsh environment

Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936)
directed by Frank Capra, presented the social and political accomplishments of the New Deal in a positive light

radio in the 1930s
most direct contact with the American people
– how FDR gave his Fireside Chats

Orson Welles
actor, director, producer and writer whose live radio show “War of the Worlds” was broadcast over the radio
-story about Martians invading the earth

Bob Hope, Jack Benny, and Burns and Allen
comedians who moved from radio to network television during the 1930s

soap operas
named because they were usually sponsored by soap companies – tended to play late morning to early afternoon for homemakers

Lone Ranger
children’s programming which usually aired later in the afternoon after soap operas after children came home from school

one of first worldwide radio broadcasts
described for listeners the horrific crash of the Hindenburg, a German zeppelin on May 6, 1937

Federal Art Project
-a branch of the WPA paid artists a living wage to produce public art
– aimed to increase public appreciation of art and to promote positive images of American society

American Gothic/ Grant Wood
American Gothic/ Grant Wood
painted by Grant Wood in 1930
-became one the most famous portrayals of life in the Midwest during the Great Depression; painted in the style known as regionalis, wood painted familiar subjects in realistic ways; the farmer and daughter painted were images of Wood’s daughter and dentist

WPA’s Federal Theater Project
hired actors to perform plays and artists to provide stage sets and props for theater productions that played around the country

Woodie Guthrie
-singer and songwriter who used music to capture the hardships of America
-Dust Bowl Ballads
-This Land is Your Land
-had a major impact on the course of American folk music

WPA’s Federal Writers’ Project and Depression Era Books
1. Saul Bello -gave future Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow his first writing job
2. Richard Wright- African American author of “Native Son”
3. Zora Neale Hurston – “Their Eyes Were Watching God ” 1937
4. John Steinbeck – “The Grapes of Wrath” 1939- reveals the lives of Oklahomans who left the Dust Bowl and ended up in California, where their hardships continued
5. James T. Farrells – “Studs Lonigan” trilogy 1932-1935) provides bleak picture of working class Irish neighborhood of Chicago
6. Jack Conroy “The Disinherited” 1933 – violence and poverty of the Missouri coalfields, where Conroy’s own brother and father died in a mine disaster
7. James Agee “Let Us Now Praise the Famous Men” 1941 – deals with the difficult lives of poor farmers but portrays the dignity and strength of the character in the people it presents

“Our Town” 1938
play by Thornton Wilder captures the beauty of small town life in New England

what were the two extremes that FDR was able to strike a balance between?
1. unregulated capitalism
2. overregulated socialism

What ultimately brought the USA out of the Great Depression?
massive amount of spending by the federal govt. for guns, tanks, ships, airplanes, and all the other equipment and supplies the country needed for the WWII effort

What were lasting policies of the New Deal?
1. protection of worker’s rights
– standards for wages and hours
-banned child labor
-ensure rts. of workers to organize and bargain collectively with employers
– National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) est. in the Wagner Act still acts as a mediator in labor disputes between unions and employers
2. SEC created in 1934 still continues to monitor the stock market and to enforce laws regarding the sale of stocks and bonds
3. FDIC created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 has shored up the banking system by reassuring individual depositors that their savings are protected against loss in the event of a bank failure (today accts insured up to $250k)
4. FDIC, SEC, and Social Security – continue to stabilize the nation’s finances and economy
5. established agricultural price supports set a precedent for federal aid to farmers that continued into the 2000s
6. Environmental Impacts – Civilian Conservation Corps planted trees, created hiking trails, built fire lookout towers; Soil Conservation Service – taught farmers how to conserve soil through contour plowing, terracing, and crop rotation; Taylor Grazing Act 1934 – helped reduce grazing on public lands; such grazing had contributed to conditions that led to the Dust Bowl;
Tennessee Valley Authority – harnessed water power to create electricity and helped prevent disastrous floods;
national parks were added and wildlife refuges set aside large wilderness areas

What were the lasting negative environmental impacts of the New Deal?
-govt. sponsored strip-mining and coal burning caused air, land, and water pollution

List how different groups of people responded to the New Deal?
1. brought hope and gratitude to those who benefited from its programs
2. brought anger and criticism from those who believed that it took more of their $ in taxes and curtailed their freedom through increased govt. regulation
3. deficit spending necessary to fund the New Deal programs grew immensely as the nation entered WWII

Commodity Credit Corporation
as part of the second Agricultural Adjustment Act made loans to farmers based on a farmer’s surplus crops and the PARITY price, a price intended to keep a farmer’s income steday

a government supported level for the prices of agricultural products, intended to keep farmer’s incomes steady

Emergency Banking Act (1933) Allowed inspection of bank records to enable financially stable banks to reopen; validated “bank holiday”; permitted Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy stocks of banks in trouble, thereby giving the banks an infusion of new capital, an …

Social Security (FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) A relief, recovery, …

addressing the needs of groups such as women, African-Americans, and laborers. The New Deal helped establish a new voting coalition for President Roosevelt and the Democratic Party by restore confidence in the nation’s banking system To fight the Depression, the …

By issuing licenses to banks that were wxamined by federal officials How did the Emergency Banking Relief Act help solve the banking crisis? Break up big companies What did Roosevelts advisers who were in favor of “New Freedom” want to …

Explain the causes of the Great Depression and state the unemployment rate 1929 – “Black Thursday” Stock market collapsed, factories closed, unemployment went up, optimism shattered Result in 25% unemployment Discuss the most striking characteristic of the stock market in …

Emergency Banking Relief Act March 1933(HD); first act of the Hundred Days; gave president power to regulate transactions in credit, currency, gold, silver, and foreign exchange; prohibited gold hording the the exportation of gold; allowed banks to reopen on March …

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