US History Chapter 26 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal

Explain the causes of the Great Depression and state the unemployment rate
1929 – “Black Thursday” Stock market collapsed, factories closed, unemployment went up, optimism shattered
Result in 25% unemployment

Discuss the most striking characteristic of the stock market in 1929
Souring stock prices attract investment
Corporate investor’s obsess with speculation on stock market

Describe the social and economic effects of the Great Depression
Hardship affected all classes – unemployment and poverty undermined self-worth and caused despair
The middle class lost belief in ever-increasing prosperity – hit them hard
Thousands of young homeless, jobless
25% unemployed

Discuss how the consumer-goods revolution contributed to the great crash of 1929
Demand for consumer goods declines
Businesses laid off workers
Because of the availability of durable goods that didn’t need to be regularly replaced, production outpaced demand, which led to wide-scale layoffs

Discuss President Hoover’s attempts to end the Depression and explain why he failed
Hoover initially sought solution through voluntary action, private charity
-Aided farmers with Farm Board to buy surpluses and bankers with loans through Reconstruction Finance Corporation
-Hoover Dam
-White House business conference
Hoover too cautious and too late with programs

Explain the steps Roosevelt took in order to win the election of 1932
Defeated Hoover with farmer- worker-immigrant-Catholic coalition People still blamed Hoover for the Depression and remembered the Bonus Army

Explain how the he united the Democratic Party
Roosevelt healed division in Democratic party among the different cultures and races

Analyze the New Deal legislation passed in the “100 days”
New Deal aimed to reform and restore, not nationalize, the economy

Discuss the steps Roosevelt took to save the banks
Banking system saved from collapse – closed all banks – strong banks saved, weak eliminated – gave money to strong banks and FDIC

Discuss the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and its goal
Tennessee Valley Authority was the most ambitious one – jobs, electricity and modernization to rural South

Discuss the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and why it failed
National economic planning
-Industries formulated guidelines and codes to eliminate cutthroat competition, ensure labor peace
-Codes favored big business,
-NRA ruled unconstitutional because it favored large corporations – not small ones

Explain the purpose of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) and why it failed
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
-Farmers paid to take land out of cultivation – farmers must cut production
-Prices increased, mainly because of government payments, but Dust Bowl helped by cutting supply
-Sharecroppers, tenant farmers dispossessed
-Found unconstitutional in 1936 – mainly helped large farms not small ones

Differentiate between Roosevelt’s programs for relief and recovery
1933: Harry Hopkins placed in charge of Relief programs to give aid to unemployed – seen as “color blind”
1933: Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) provided employment to young people
1935: Works Progress Administration (WPA) placed unemployed on federal payroll

List and evaluate New Deal reforms
-1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)–
Provided jobs for single males on conservation projects
-1935 Works Progress Administration (WPA)– Quickly created as many jobs as possible
-1933 National Recovery Administration (NRA)– Establish codes of fair competition; failed
-1933 Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)– Raise crop prices by lowering production and paying farmers to leave a certain amount of every acre of land unseeded; failed
-1933 Tennesse Valley Authority (TVA)– Developed the resources of the Tennessee Valley such as electrics
-1935 Social Security Administration– most important

Explain why some reform programs during the New Deal did not last
Programs never sufficiently funded.
The Supreme Court attacked FDR’s programs. In 1935, the Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional because it gave the President lawmaking powers and regulated local, rather than interstate, commerce. The following year, the Court also struck down the tax that funded AAA subsidies to farmers. Two of the most important elements of the New Deal had crumbled

Explain the motivation for the passage of the Social Security Act
Passed because of duty to help unemployed, aged, and handicapped

Explain FDRs attitude toward budget deficits during the New Deal
He tried to avoid planned deficits, seeking a balanced budget when he ought to have spent more
People thought he was too conservative and thought he should spend more

Compare and contrast the names of the individuals and programs of the various critics of the New Deal
Critics of FDR demanded radical reforms for small guy
-Father Charles Coughlin advocated nationalizing banks, anti-Semitism
-Francis Townsend called for $200 per month pensions to all those over 60 if they spent it within the month
-Huey Long and the Share the Wealth Clubs called for redistribution of wealth by seizing private fortunes – popular with those not benefiting from New Deal

Explain why these critics were popular with part of the population
Because they benefitted the part of the population that was not benefitting from the New Deal

Explain what is meant by Harry Hopkins being “color blind”
He promoted African American rights during the New Deal

Explain how the New Deal affected labor, women, and minorities
-1932: National Recovery Act spurred union organizers
Promoted all workers – not just skilled
-New Deal figures convinced minorities that the government was on their side
1934: Indian Reorganization Act gave American Indians greater control
-Position of women deteriorated in the ’30s
-Jobs lost at a faster rate than men
-Hardly any New Deal programs help

Explain why most African Americans changed from Republican Party to the Democratic Party during this period
Blacks shifted from Republican to Democrat (FDR) because FDR hired Blacks in cabinet and Harry Hopkins

Explain the impact that the depression had on immigration
It effectively reversed the flow, with hundreds of thousands being deported

Explain the events and explain the significance of Roosevelt’s attempt to “pack the court”
Supreme Court blocked several of FDR’s first-term programs
1937: FDR sought right to “pack” Court and remove threat to New Deal
Congressional protest forced retreat – even Democrats against “packing” the Court
FDR’s opponents emboldened

Discuss the rise of labor during the New Deal
1932: National Recovery Act spurred union organizers
Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) formed by John L. Lewis
CIO unionized steel, auto industries
1940: CIO membership hit 5 million, 28% of labor force unionized
Promoted all workers – not just skilled

Discuss the factors that ended the New Deal
1936: Cutbacks for relief agencies
Congress resisted programs after 1936
1937: Severe slump hit economy
Roosevelt blamed
Programs require massive spending that could not be sustained
Some feel FDR was too conservative and should have spent more
1938: Republican party revived
New Deal lasted 5 years

Explain how FDR’s personal background prepared him to meet the challenges of the Great Depression
-Born to wealth and privilege
-1921: Crippled by polio – prepared him to be sensitive to downtrodden
-1928: Elected governor of New York
-Talented and persuasive politician

Explain the most significant long-range effect of the New Deal on American society today
Wagner Act helped labor
Political realignment of the 1930s
Most important was Social Security Act

Explain why the New Deal was described as slow and halting
New Deal’s limitations:
Depression not ended
Economic system not fundamentally altered
Little done for those without political clout

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democratic president who created the New Deal to counter the effects of the Great Depression New Deal A collection of multiple programs started to end the Great Depression passed by Franklin Roosevelt; some of these programs included …

Franklin Delano Roosevelt President of the Unites States during the Depression and WWII Brian Trust FDR put together a group of academics and professionals that the press WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Frances Perkins -America’s first female cabinet member (as Secretary of Labor) -Contributed to creating the Social Security system -Supervised labor legislation What problems did women face in the New Deal era? -Faced discrimination in the workplace -The attitude towards working …

Wall Street Boom rising stock prices had become a symbol of wealth during the 1920s, boom was in full force, stock prices had kept going up, worldwide, stocks doubled in value in a year, millions did invest in boom market …

What were the causes of the Great Depression? -buying on credit, tariffs& war debt, unequal distribution of income, crisis in the farm sector -There were many causes of the Great Depression, starting with WWI, then the Spanish Flu which wiped …

Franklin D Roosevelt He beat Herbert Hoover in the general election and became the 32nd President of the United States. He was a democrat and cousin to previous president Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt She was the niece of Theodore Roosevelt. …

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