Upper Airways – Aspiration Pneumonia

pneumonia (def)
an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the lungs

caused by viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms and sometimes by physical chemical irritants

symptoms of pneumonia
fever/temp up to 105
excessive sweating/chills
difficulty breathing
chest pain
productive/phlegmy cough
SOB
fatigue

productive vs unproductive cough
productive – has purpose – ex: cough up phlegm

unproductive – just coughing

Pneumonia – what exactly happens?
lung sacs or alveoli become inflamed
epithelium thickens
reduces surfactant

infectious material accumulates into air spaces as infiltrate grows, surface area diminishes – limits space for O2

anatomy of lungs
left angles at 25 deg
right angles at 45 deg

Pneumonia – chest x-ray terminology
density/opacity
consolidates
infiltrates

describing lesions in lungs
tissues involved (lung, heart, aorta, etc.)
size (small/large/varied)
number (single/multiple)
side (R/L, uni/bi)
distribution (focal/widespread)
position (ant/post/lung zone)
shape (round/crescentic, etc.)
edge (smooth/irregular/spiculated)
pattern – (nodular reticular)
density (air/fat/soft-tissue/calcium/meta)

atelectasis (def)
collapse of alveoli with loss of lung volume

alveoli
site of gas exchange

edema
fluid in alveolar or interstitial space (space between tissues)

effusion
fluid in pleural cavity

Pneumonia – tx
antibiotics
oxygen therapy
respiratory therapy Tx
fluids

etiologies of pneumonia
community acquired
nosocomial
aspiration

aspiration pneumonitis
aspiration of sterile gastric contents

acidity matters more than how much

occurs in 2 stages (first within 4 hours, then 2-3 hours later)

body tries to come to its rescue

common scenarios for aspiration pneumonitis
OD
status epileptics
head injury
severe stroke
perioperative period

clearance mechanisms to prevent aspiration
cough
muco-ciliary escalator
cellura clearance

aspiration pneumonia caused by
asp of food or liquid
asp of secretions
asp of refluxate

best predictors of asp pneumonia
dependent feeders
depenent oral carae
number of decayed teeth
tube feeding
more than one med dx
meds
smoking

recommended frequency for oral cleaning
AM/PM, after meals and snacks

intubated or trach – every 2-4 hours

benefits of effective oral care
reduces bacteria
increases appetite
improves oral control of bolus
increases salivary flow

aspiration pneumonia Acute inflammation of lungs that is usually caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms aspiration pneumonitis Acute lung injury after the inhalation of regurgitated gastric contents WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Aspiration Pneumonia Typical Features 1. History of recurrent aspiration or an aspiration event 2. New onset respiratory distress, oxygen requirement, or in some children, fever, after the aspiration or in a child with known aspiration 3. Focal findings on physical …

Define aspiration pneumonitis Acute lung injury d/t inhaled chemical irritants (acidic stomach contents, hydrocarbons, water – fresh or salt) What factors impact the magnitude of injury? pH (severe if pH 2.4) volume of aspiration osmolality presence of non-sterile particulate matter …

Definition and Mechanism Aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal material Acute pulmonary inflammatory response to bacteria and bacterial products Clinical Findings Tachypnea, cough, respiratory distress, fever, leukocytosis, pulmonary infiltrate WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Pneumonia Acute inflammation of the lung caused by a microbial organism sulfa drugs and penicillin decreased morbidity and mortality rates in pneumonia pts WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Pneumonia Infection of some or all of the lobes of the lungs. Fluid, microorganisms, and white blood cells fill the alveoli and air passages that makes it difficult to breathe. Aspiration Pneumonia Caused by foreign matter that is inhaled into …

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