Unit 8 pharmacology (pain, inflammation, Fever)

NSAIDS mechanism of action
blocks cyclo-oxygenase and prostoglandins

NSAIDS therapeutic effects
decrease inflammation, pain, temperature, platelet aggregation inhibitor

NSAIDS indications
mild to moderate pain, rheumatoid arthritis/ osteoarthritis, gout, inflammation, fever

NSAIDS precautions/contraindications/side effects
black box warning-thrombotic events, MI stroke, GI ulcer/perforation, bleeding, renal disease

Aspirin contraindications
children/ chicken pox (Reye’s syndrome)

Aspirin side effects
tinnitus, N/V, respiratory depression, hypotension, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkolosis

Motrin/ Ibuprofen dosing
3.2 G/ 24 hour

Mortrin/Ibuprofen effects which organ
kidneys and GI

NSAIDS prototypes
Aspirin (ASA), Ibuprofen, naproxen, ketorolac

NSAID w/ out GI effects
celecoxib- anti-inflammatory used for arthritis

Non-opioid agents
Tylenol (acetaminophen)

Tylenol (acetaminophen) mechanism of action
Pain: inhibits prostaglandins blocks peripheral pain impluses
fever: direct action on hypothalamus

Tylenol (acetaminophen) therapeutic effects
decrease pain and fever

Tylenol (acetaminophen) indications
fever, mild to moderate pain, osteoarthritis

Tylenol (acetaminophen) contraindications
liver impairment

Tylenol (acetaminophen) side effects
liver impairment, N/V

Tylenol (acetaminophen) dosing
3 G/24 hours

Tylenol (acetaminophen) antidote
mucomyst

Opioid analgesics mechanism of action
binds to brain receptors in the brain

opioid analgesics prototypes
codeine, hydromorphone, fentanyl (actiq, duragesic, sublimaze), morphine, oxycodone/acetaminophen, hydrocodone/ acetaminophen

Opioid antidote
naloxone

opioid analgesics therapeutic effects
decrease pain and cough

opioid analgesics indications for use
moderate to severe pain, cough suppression, adjunct to anesthesia

opioid analgesics precautions/ contraindications
hypotension, respiratory insufficiency, slowed GI motility

opioid analgesics side effects
sedation, constipation, respiratory depression, N/V

Precipitating factors for Migraine headaches
stress/emotion, hormones, alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, MSG

Migraine headache effects
cerebral vasoconstriction

Migraine headache associated symptoms
photophobia, phonophobia, N/V, aura, can last a few hours to several days

Prophylactic Migraine headache treatment
beta blockers, CCBs, tricyclic antidepressant, NSAIDS, avoid triggers, lifestyle modification

Pharmacological treatment for Migraines
serotonin receptor agonists “triptans” = sumatriptan, rizatriptan

Inflammation
occurs in a localized area, increased fluid adds to pain and possible alteration to function

Gout cause
build up of acid crystals in joints causing inflammation, pain and joint destruction

Non pharmacological treatment
rest and elevation

Gout drug treatment
colchicine used after NSAIDS, allopurinol stops uric acid production

rheumatoid arthritis treatment
NSAIDS

osteoarthritis treatment
acetaminophen, NSAIDS

fever treatment
acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, aspirin (ASA), treat cause and cooling measures

Cyclooxygenase (COX) Is an Enzyme that helps in the Synthesis of Prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause Inflammation and Pain at the Injury Site Infection Is caused by Microorganisms and Results in Inflammation (but not all inflammations are caused by infections) WE WILL …

A health care professional should understand that naloxone can reverse the effects of an excessive dose of which of the following drugs? A) Aspirin B) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) C) Morphine D) Prednisone ANS: C Rationale: Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, reverses the …

Types of Analgesics NSAID’s-interfere with prodiction of prostoglandins Opiods-stimulate opiod receptors Types of Anti-inflammatories Glucocorticoids Uricosurics WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Drugs for pain Nonopioid analgesics …

Older adult patient about take prednisone for long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Monitor for what adverse effects? Bone loss prednisone (glucocorticoid) can cause osteoporosis esp with long-term use increase weight-bearing activity and report back pain. HCP must monitor bone density …

What are the pain mediating chemicals found in the body? Substance P, prostaglandins, bradykinins, and histamine What does the body produce and release in response to pain? Body releases serotonin and produces enkephalins and endorphins which bind to opioid receptors …

A health care professional is caring for a patient who is opioid-dependent and is about to begin taking butorphanol (stadol). The health care professional should recognize the patient is at risk for developing a sundrome that causes which of the …

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