Unit 4: 1920s and Great Depression

1920’s

Teapot Dome Scandal
symbol of government corruption; government oil reserves were secretly leased to oil companies in exchange for financial compensation

Normalcy
expectedness as a consequence of being usual or regular or common

Kellogg Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Washington Naval Conference
1921 – president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other’s possessions, and to respect China’s independence

Demobilization
act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops

Disarmament
a limit or reduction in armed forces or weapons

Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Four Power Treaty
1921. Treaty between the US, Great Britain, France, and Japan to maintain the status quo in the South Pacific, that no countries could seek further territorial gain.

Fordney McCumber Act
(1922) Federal law that raised tariff rates on manufactured goods and levied high duties on imported agricultural goods.

Volstead Act
The Act specified that “no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act.” It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors

Prohibition
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

18th Amendment
Alchohol made illegal

19th Amendment Suffrage
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Tariffs
Taxes on imports or exports

Fundamentalist Movement
grew dramatically in 1st 2 decades . led by fears of Protestant Modernism also catholic and jewish people. composed of mainly southern baptist. Darwinian theories scared them

Anarchists
people who oppose organized government

Communists
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property

Sacco and Vanzetti
In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly

Red Scare
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas

Flappers
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion

Roaring Twenties
the decade of the 1920’s which got this nickname because of the times presperity and excitement

Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime

Zora Neale Hurston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Ku Klux Klan
Reconstruction-era organization that was revived in 1915 and rose to political power in the mid-1920s when membership reached 4 to 5 million; opposed to blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants, its membership was rural, white, native-born, and Protestant.

Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.

Universal Negro Improvement Association
(UNIA) Association founded by Marcus Gravey in 1914 to foster African American economic independence and establish an independent black homeland in Africa.

NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

Quota System
an arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country

Rosewood Incident
racially motivated massacre of several African Americans in a Florida town that ignited as a result of a rumor that a black man had assaulted a white woman

Seminole Indians
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.

W. E. B. DuBois
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.

Economic Boom
sudden increase in prosperity

Great Depression

Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929

Speculation Boom
– People invest in the stock market like crazy, buying shares, hoping that the value of the company would increase and sell it off at a higher price and make a profit. Stock shares rise, and that increases speculation.

Bull Market
a period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices

Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future

Great Drepression
period lasting from 1929 to 1941 in which the US economy faltered and unemployment soared

Gross National Product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.

Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Impact of Climate and Natural Disasters
Actually, the land boom in the 1920’s was interrupted by a series of natural disasters in Florida, including freezes and hurricanes.

Bonus Expeditionary Force
thousands of WWI veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, they marched on Washington in 1932, violence ensured when President Hoover ordered their ten villages cleared

New Deal
The name of President Roosevelt’s program for getting the United States out of the depression

Bank Holiday
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
the government agency that insures customer deposits if a bank fails

National Labor Relations Act
(FDR) A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.

National Recovery Act
Provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools and other community buildings

Recovery, Reform, Relief
– Roosevelt’s New Deal program aimed at the three R’s, name them (alphabetically).

Agricultural Adjustment Act
Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.

Sit Down Strike
method of boycotting work by sitting down at work and refusing to leave the establishment

Smoot Hawley Tariff
One of Herbert Hoover’s earliest efforts to protect the nation’s farmers following the onset of the Great Depression. Tariff raised rates to an all-time high.

Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects

Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.

Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.

Charles Lindbergh United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974) Scopes Monkey Trial 1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism WE WILL …

In the 1920s, the Federal Reserve contributed to weaknesses in the stock market by keeping interest rates low. lending to foreign companies. lending to speculators. speculating on market interest rates. keeping interest rates low. During the stock market crash of …

Andrew Mellon banker who was Secretary of the Treasury in the Harding administration Scopes Trial set the theory of evolution against fundamentalism WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

Roaring Economy to Great Depression It made the economy weaker. What effect did the use of credit have on the economy in the 1920s? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

How did the liberalism of FDR’s New Deal on earlier progressive ideas and transformed the United States into a limited Welfare State. It completely redefined the relationship between government and economy forever, government boards regulated business, wages, and hours ; …

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