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Which of the following bones do not contain a sinus?
nasal
Which cranial bone spans the width of the cranial floor?
sphenoid
Which of the following bones is unpaired
frontal
Which bone is NOT considered to be part of the cranium?
lacrimal; it is a facial bone
Identify the landmark that serves as a site of attachment for the meninges
crista galli
Identify the cranial nerve that passes through the olfactory foramina.
the olfactory nerve (CN I)
Identify the primary function of the ethmoidal sinuses
reduce the weight of the skull
Which part of the ethmoid bone forms the nasal septum?
perpendicular plate
Which of the following facial bones contain a sinus?
maxillary
Which facial bones makeup the central portion of the bridge of the nose?
nasal
What is the anatomical name for the facial bones known as “cheekbones”?
zygomatic
Which facial bones fuse to form the upper jaw?
maxillary
Identify the small facial bones found in the medial wall of the orbit.
lacrimal
Identify the skull bone that can move independent of head movement.
mandible
Which region of the mandible articulates with the cranium?
mandibular condyle
Identify the part of the mandible that serves as a site of attachment for the temporalis muscle.
coronoid process
Name the U shaped border found between the mandibular condyle and the coronoid process.
mandibular notch
mandible is responsible for:
chewing food, structure of chin, structure of lower jaw
Which surface of the maxillary bones fuse together?
medial
Which part of the maxillary bones form the roof of the mouth?
palatine processes
Identify the small hole on the maxillary bone located below the orbit.
infraorbital foramen
Identify the posterior most region of the hard palate.
palatine bone
Which of the following locations is not formed by part of the maxillae?
nasal septum
Identify the location of the occipital bone.
Posterior surface and base of the cranium
Name the opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
foramen magnum
Identify the area of the occipital bone that articulates with the vertebral column.
occipital condyles
Identify the occipital bone landmark that can not be palpated from the surface of the head.
occipital condyles
Identify the large suture on the posterior surface of the skull at the border of the occipital bone.
lambdoid
The nasal septum occupies which anatomic plane?
sagittal
Which bone forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum?
vomer
What part of the nasal cavity is formed by the nasal septum?
forms medial wall of nasal cavity
How many bones make up the nasal septum?
2
Identify the part of the ethmoid bone that contributes to the nasal septum.
perpendicular plate
Identify the location of the sphenoid bone.
floor of skull
Identify the region of the sphenoid bone in contact with the pituitary gland.
sella turcica
Identify the region of the sphenoid bone that contains the optic canal.
lesser wings
Which of the following foramen convey a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)?
foramen rotundum
The sella turcica is best described as:
a depression
Identify the region of the temporal bone that forms part of the zygomatic arch.
zygomatic process
Identify the region of the temporal bone that articulates with the lower jaw.
mandibular fossa
Identify the hole that marks the opening of the ear canal on the superficial surface of the skull.
external auditory meatus
Identify the bone that articulates superiorly with the temporal bone.
parietal bone
Identify the landmark on the temporal bone that is a pointy spine.
styloid process
Identify the region of the mandible that forms part of the temporomandibular joint.
mandibular condyle
Identify the region of the temporal bone that articulates with the mandible
mandibular fossa
Identify the best description of the mandibular fossa.
shallow depression
Identify the best description of the mandibular condyle.
projection on the mandible
Where is the mandibular fossa located?
inferior surface of the zygomatic process
Identify the general location of the zygomatic arch.
cheek
Identify the 2 bones that make up the zygomatic arch.
zygomatic bone and temporal bone
Identify the region on the temporal bone that forms much of the zygomatic arch.
zygomatic process
Identify the region on the zygomatic bone that forms part of the zygomatic arch.
temporal process
Which of the following categories is the best fit for the zygomatic arch?
facial
Identify the region of the skull that articulates with the atlas.
occipital condyles
Identify the articulation site that allows us to rotate our head, e.g. shaking the head “no”.
atlas- axis
Identify the articulation site that allows us to nod our head “yes”.
occipital bone- atlas
What is the name of the second cervical vertebra?
axis
What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?
atlas
ndividual vertebrae articulate with each other forming the vertebral column. Identify the part of a vertebra that articulates immediately with the vertebra below it.
inferior articular processes
Name the vertebral projection found in a median plane.
spinous process
Identify the major weight bearing part of a vertebra.
body
Which of the following structures would not be found within a vertebral foramen?
Intervertebral discs
Identify a lateral projection of a vertebra.
transverse process
Which region of the vertebral column is located superior to the thoracic region and which region is inferior to the thoracic region, respectively?
Superiorly: cervical and inferiorly: lumbar
Identify the articulation site for a tubercle of a rib.
Transverse costal facet
Which of the following thoracic vertebrae is the largest?
T12
Identify the articulation site for the head of a rib.
demi facet
How many vertebrae comprise the thoracic region of the spine?
12
How many lumbar vertebrae are in the vertebral column?
5
Which of the following characteristics do not belong to the lumbar region?
elongated spinous process
Which region of the vertebral column is immediately superior to the lumbar region?
thoracic
Which region of the vertebral column is immediately inferior to the lumbar region?
sacral
Identify the part of a rib that articulates in the demi-facets of the thoracic vertebra.
head
Identify the region of a rib that articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra.
tubercle
Name the type of connective tissue that anchors the ribs onto the sternum.
hyaline cartilage
Identify the shield shaped top of the sternum.
manubrium
Identify the central portion of the sternum
body
What part of the sternum is palpated prior to giving CPR?
xiphoid process
How many pairs of ribs articulate directly with the sternum?
7
What structures develop as a result of gravity acting on the skeleton after birth?
secondary curvatures
Pregnant women may experience an exaggerated lordosis, or swayback. Which curvature is affected during pregnancy?
cervical region
Dysplasia of the hip may occur due to congenital malformation of the __________.
pubis
lumbar vertebrae
short flat spinous processes
Which of the following structures is common only to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae?
rib facets
The __________ is the only bone in the body that does NOT directly articulate with any other bone.
hyoid bone
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called __________.
interstitial growth
The main role of the axial skeleton
is to protect and support vital organs
The collagen in the osteoid bone matrix makes the overall bone matrix stronger by
allowing flexibility
Which of the following is a site for a muscle or ligament attachment?
trochanter
Flat bones consist of spongy bone sandwiched between
compact bone
An imbalance that activates these bone cells would lead to a loss of bone density.
osteoclasts
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
osteon
What is the weakest part of a developing, adolescent long bone?
the epiphyseal plate
What is intramembranous ossification?
bone growth from fibrous membrane
Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is __________.
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is __________.
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?
osteoporosis
Osteoid-producing osteoblasts must rely upon this organelle to produce primary structures leading to the formation of collagen and calcium-binding proteins.
ribosomes
Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body?
proteins
Which of the following refers to a joint that is slightly movable?
amphiarthrosis
Which of the following is true about the shoulder joint?
The glenohumeral joint is more mobile, making it less stable.
To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone’s ________.
articular turbucle
Which movement decreases the angle between articulating bones?
flexion
What single factor plays the largest role in maintaining adequate bone strength
Gravity
What cation is required to create additional bone matrix support?
Calcium
Identify the bones that make up the wrist.
carpals. 8 make up the wrist
Identify the bones that make up the palm of the hand.
metacarpals
What type of bones are the phalanges?
long bone
How many phalanges are located in the hand?
14
What type of joint is formed between the wrist and the first metacarpal?
saddle
Which of the following landmarks found on the proximal end of the humerus?
greater tubercle
Identify the depression found on the posterior surface of the humerus.
olecranon fossa
Identify the region of the humerus that articulates with the ulna.
trochlea
Which of the following landmarks is found on the distal end of the humerus?
lateral epicondyle
What part of the humerus articulates with the scapula to form the shoulder joint?
head
Which region of the skeleton contains the humerus?
appendicular
Where is the radius located in reference to the ulna?
lateral
Identify the region of the radius that articulates with the ulna.
head
Which of the following regions of the radius help form the wrist joint?
styloid process
Which digit is the radius closest to?
digit 1
What type of joint is formed between the radius and ulna?
pivot
Identify the type of movement enabled by the articulation between the radius and ulna at the elbow.
supination
Where in the skeleton is the ulna located in reference to the humerus?
distal
Identify the primary region of the ulna that forms the hinge joint with the humerus.
trochlear notch
head of ulna
is found at the distal end of the bone
Identify the projection found on distal end of the ulna.
styloid process
Identify the region of the ulna that articulates with the humerus when the forearm is in full extension.
olecranon process
Which forearm bone(s) contribute(s) most heavily to the elbow joint?
ulna
When you hit your elbow and say that you hit your “funny bone,” you have actually hit a nerve that runs across the bone surface. Over which bone can this nerve be found?
humerus
the pubic arch is
broader in the pelvis of a female than in the pelvis of a male.
the female pelvis is
tilted further down than the male pelvis and also thinner than a male’s
When a hand is placed on the hip, which specific bone structure is the hand resting on?
iliac crest of the ilium
Which parts of the pelvic girdle make up the pelvic brim?
ilium and pubis
Why are the spines, tubercles, and crests of the pelvic girdle important to know and recognize?
These structures are the attachment points for many skeletal muscles and ligaments.
Which part of a hip bone specifically articulates with the sacrum?
articular surface of the ilium
The adult hip bone consists of _____ regions.
3
Which region of the hip bone articulates with the sacrum?
ilium
Which landmark of the hip bone can be felt on a hard chair?
ischial tuberosity
What regions of the hip bones articulate to form a symphysis?
right and left pubic bodies
Which of the following is the largest region of the hip bone?
ilium
Identify the articulation site for the femur.
acetabulum
Identify the large hole found in this bone.
obturator foramen
The ridge like superior edge of the ilium is known as the _____.
iliac crest
What region of the vertebral column does the hip bone articulate with?
sacral region
Which bone articulates in the acetabulum?
femur
Identify the bony posterior wall of the pelvis.
sacrum
Name the number of vertebrae that fuse together to form the sacrum.
5
Identify the region of the coxal bone that articulates with the sacrum.
ilium
Identify the tailbone.
coccyx
Identify the typical number of vertebrae that fuse during development to form the coccyx.
3-5
phalanges on the foot
are toes
both the hand and foot
contain 15 phalangeal bones that form the fingers and the toes.
A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.
maxillae
Old age affects many parts of the skeleton. Which of the following is NOT associated with old age?
The mandible continues to grow and thicken.
Identify the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.
tibia
Identify the region of the femur that forms part of the hip joint.
head
The condition known as a “fractured hip” is most often a break in the femur. Where is the femur particularly susceptible to a fracture?
neck
Identify the landmark that is unique to the femur.
trochanter
Identify the landmark found on the diaphysis of the femur.
linea espera
Identify the best description for the location of the head of the femur.
medial and proximal
Identify the non-weight bearing bone of the lower limb.
fibula
Identify the type of joint found between the distal end of the tibia and fibula (distal tibiofibular joint).
syndesmoses
Name the noticeable bump on the outside of the ankle
lateral malleolus
Identify the 2 bones that the fibula articulates with in the skeleton.
tibia and talus
What type of bone is the fibula?
long
Identify the tarsal that articulates with the tibia and fibula.
talus
Name the number of tarsals.
7
Identify the anatomical term for the “heel bone”.
calcaneus
Identify the bones that make up the middle portion of the foot.
metatarsals
Which of the following digits contain only 2 phalanges?
1
What type of bone is a phalanx?
long
The flat surface of the tibia that articulates with the femur is the superior surface of which landmark?
medial and lateral condyles
Identify the bone found lateral to the tibia.
fibula
Identify the anatomical landmark resulting in a noticeable bump found on the medial surface of the ankle.
medial malleolus
Name the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.
tibia
Identify the blunt elevation found on the anterior surface of the tibia between the lateral and medial condyles.
tibial tuberosity
Which of the following landmarks can be found on both the tibia and fibula?
malleoli
The mineral crystals that comprise much of the extracellular matrix of osseous (bony) tissue are mostly composed of:
calcium phosphate
Functions of the bones
protection of the lungs
protection of the brain
movement through lever action
formation of blood cells
What gland produces a hormone that is crucial for releasing calcium from bone when the body needs to increase calcium levels in the bloodstream?
parathyroid
What hormone is produced by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in storage of calcium in bone?
calcitonin
osteogenic cells
stem cells that can specialize and become osteoblasts
osteocytes
mature bone cells embedded inside the lacunae located inside the osseous tissue
osteoblasts
cells that synthesize the bony matrix and store calcium
osteon
the subunit of compact bone
trabecula
tiny subunit of compact bone
osteoclasts
cells that dissolve bony matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
steps of endochondral ossification
1. hyaline cartilage model of long bone forms in the embryo
2. a primary ossification center develops as the center of the diaphysis ossifies
3. osteoclasts carve out the medullary cavity as osteoblasts produce osteons
4. secondary ossification centers develop as the epiphyses ossify
5. bone lengthening continues as chondrocytes in the growth plates divide and become calcified
This type of tissue fills the spaces between the trabeculae of spongy bone:
red bone marrow
The flat bones of the skull develop through this type of ossification:
intramembranous
This type of ossification in the embryo starts from a sheet of fibrous connective tissue.
intramembranous
During endochondral ossification, these cells carve out the medullary canals of long bones:
osteoclasts
This type of osseous tissue is found around the edges of long bones:
compact bone
The arrows on this image are pointing to dark areas on an X-ray from a child. The dark areas represent these areas of tissue that are less dense than osseous tissue:
epiphyseal plates
The long bones of the body begin developing in the embryo due to this type of ossification:
endochondral
During childhood and adolescence, these types of cells are mitotic in the epiphyseal plates. This accounts for bone lengthening.
chondrocytes
A deficiency in this hormone during childhood can lead to dwarfism.
growth hormone
A deficiency of Vitamin D can lead to “soft bones” as part of this disorder.
ricketts
This vitamin increases absorption of calcium from the small intestine.
vitamin d
This vitamin is required for collagen synthesis.
vitamin c
Disorder caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C
scurvy
Osteoclast activity requires this vitamin.
vitamin a
If blood calcium levels drop, which endocrine gland is stimulated to release a hormone?
parathyroid gland
This endocrine hormone stimulates osteoblasts to synthesize more bony matrix containing calcium.
calcitonin
Processes (bumps) on bones occur at locations where:
bone hypertrophies due to physical stresses such as muscles pulling on them at their points of attachment.
The female sex hormones induce growth plate closure earlier than male sex hormones.
true
bone remodeling steps
1. bone fracture occurs
2. ruptured blood vessels leak blood, and a blood clot (hematoma) forms
3. new blood vessels invade, and a soft tissue fibrocartilage callus develops
4. a spongy bone callus replaces the soft tissue callus
5. bone remodeling occurs to restore the normal locations of compact and spongy bone, as well as the medullary cavity
How would you describe a fracture of the humerus in which the breakage occurs horizontally across the entire bone, and one of the ends of the broken bone protrudes through the skin?
transverse and compound
What type of fracture has occurred based on the breakage along a diagonal across the bones?
oblique
This fracture occurred due to a violent twisting of the bone. How would you classify it?
spiral
These x-rays show that the injured tibia has been fractured into multiple pieces. This is an example of a(n) _________ fracture.
comminuted
If you were working in forensics, how would you identify the gender of the skeleton described below:
*square shaped mandible*angle of the pelvic arch is less than 90 degrees*coccyx bone not as flexible

*epiphyses and diaphyses were disarticulated, indicating that cartilage located between them had degraded

male adolescent skeleton
zygomatic bones on males are
more prominent than females
scoliosis
scoliosis
crooked back/spine
When Elvis got fat, what type of abnormal spinal curvature did he likely develop to help compensate for his extra abdominal weight?
lordosis
kyphosis
kyphosis
arthrology
study of joints
This type of synovial joint has the greatest range of motion.
ball and socket
These fibrocartilage pads help provide extra cushioning between the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia.
menisci
At which joint would you expect to find the annular ligament wrapped around the head of the radius?
elbow
condyloid
condyloid
ball and socket joint
ball and socket joint
pivot joint
pivot joint
gliding joint
gliding joint
hinge joint
hinge joint
saddle joint
saddle joint
This is responsible for providing lubrication of synovial joints.
synovial fluid
This thick liquid helps lubricate the articular surfaces of joints:
synovial fluid
The only diarthrotic joint between two skull bones.
tempomandibular joint
These fluid filled sacs help provide cushioning at joints between bones and ligaments or between other joint structures.
bursae
This type of joint is responsible for the opposable thumbs that humans have.
saddle
symphyses
are amphiarthrotic joints, which means they have a limited amount of mobility.
a healthy gomphosis
should be synarthrotic, which means that the joint is immovable.
synchondroses are
diarthrotic joints
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
caused by repetitive joint use
tendonitis
caused by repetitive joint use
treatment requires rest of the joint
rheumatoid arthritis
may be treated with immune suppressant drugs
osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis
bone spurs may grow on arthritic joints
obesity, age, and repetitive joint actions are all risk factors for osteoarthritis
gout
it is caused by excess uric acid formation or decreased uric acid elimination
it is more common in men and post menopausal women
it is most common in the joint of the big toe
lyme disease/arthritis
it is caused by a bacteria in deer ticks
it causes a characteristic “bull’s eye” rash
it can be cured if antibiotics are used in the early stages
sprain
is an injury of a ligament; results in swelling and pain. RICE is recommended for treatment

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones; includes the bones of the limbs and supporting “girdles” Pectoral Girdle aka: Shoulder; includes the …

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We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is the name of the joint formed by the clavicle and manubrium? Sternoclavicular joint What is the name …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Identify the non-weight bearing bone of the lower limb. Femur Tibia Talus Fibula Fibula ~ The fibula articulates with …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Appendicular skeleton Composed of 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs.Upper limbs attached to the axial skeleton by …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Ankle bone Navicular Coxal bones ilium, ischium, pubis WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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