Unit 14: The Musculoskeletal System

Transverse
Fracture straight across the bone

Oblique
Angled fracture

Spiral
Fracture that circles the bone

Comminuted
Bone is fractured into multiple fragments

Avulsion
Fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma

Impacted
Fracture that occurs when a bone is jammed into another bone

Fissure/Hairline
Fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time, such as in running or jumping.

Greenstick
Bone is only partially broken (like when you try to snap a tree branch that is still alive)

Hematoma
Procallus
Callus
Ossification
Remodeling
Stages of Bone Repair:

Pain
Pallor
Pulselessness
Paresthesia
Paralysis
The 5 P’s of the Neurovascular Assessment:

Tendon
Fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone

Ligament
Fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone

Sprain
Injured ligament

Strain
Injured tendon

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation
4-step treatment for sprains and strains

Compartment Syndrome
Condition that occurs when injured tissue swells within the fascia/connective tissues inside of a limb causing an increase in the pressure – may cause ischemia, nerve damage and loss of a limb if not immediately treated.

Pain
Most important symptom of compartment syndrome

Respiratory Distress
Neurological Dysfunction
Petechial Rash
Fat embolism syndrome classic triad:

Osteomyelitis
Bone infection that is difficult to treat because of the low blood supply to bone.

Osteopenia
Bone density that is lower than normal peak density. Contributes to the pathology of all metabolic bone diseases.

Osteoporosis
Disease characterized by too little bone formation, excessive bone loss, or a combination of both, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fractures especially of the hip, spine and wrist. No S/S until fracture.

Osteomalacia
Softening of bones, often caused by a vitamin D deficiency (called “rickets” in children)

Osteoarthritis
Degenerative joint disease – the breakdown/erosion of cartilage in joints caused by wear and tear over time. Worse during activity. Better during rest.

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Systemic, chronic, autoimmune disease of the joints. Pain is worse during rest. Improves with movement.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body – achy joints, swelling of hands and feet, fever, fatigue, skin lesions, rash (called a “butterfly” rash on the face), anemia, chest pain, light sensitivity, hair loss, etc.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Biochemical defect in ability to synthesis collagen – results in incomplete development of bones, ligaments, and sclera

Scoliosis
Curvature of spine looks like an S

Muscular Dystrophy
A term used to describe a number of disorders that produce progressive deterioration of skeletal muscle

The inflammation surrounding a fracture site during the first few days may complicate healing by causing: sever ischemia and tissue necrosis Immovable joints are called synarthroses WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Fractures a break in a bone What is the pathophysiology of a fracture and healing? bleeding–> clot/ hematoma around fracture site–> surrounding tissue becomes necrotic (necrosis)–> inflammation–> dilation of blood vessels and exudate–> increased osteoblast activity (callous)–> new bone–> remodeling …

Which of the following cells produce new bone? a. osteocytes b. osteoblasts c. osteoclasts d. stem cells from the bone marrow osteoblasts What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction? a. norepinephrine b. GABA c. serotonin d. acetylcholine …

Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bones are altered. Osteoporosis can cause …

As we age we deal with many unpleasant side effects. Some side effects and diseases come with the territory while others are preventable. In this paper we have a closer look at the causes of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and muscular atrophy. …

Bone & Soft Tissue Disorders Strain, Sprain, Dislocation Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid filled sac(bursa) RX: Joint rest, elevation & application of the heat, analgesics Rotator Cuff Injury: made up of four muscles that help move & stabilize the shoulder …

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