Unit 12 & 13

psychological disorder
patterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that are deviant, distressful and dysfunctional

different from the norm or what is deemed moral

medical model
created in opposition to brutal treatments

steps of medical model
diagnosis, symptoms, therapy, and hospital

biopsychosocial approach
mind and body inseparable; negative conditions contribute to physical illness and physical abnormalities contribute to negative emotions

the APA developed most widely used classification system for psychological disorders; book is called diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; offers practitioners a common and concise language for description of psychopathology; also contains language for diagnosing each of the disorders; update in May 2013 to “V”

Rosenhan experiment
suspected behaviors originated from atmosphere of mental hospitals rather than the patients themselves; him & 7 colleagues conducted this experiment in the early 1970s

vague feeling of apprehension or nervousness

anxiety disorder
where anxiety begins to take control and dominate a person’s life

generalized anxiety disorder
characterized by disruptive levels of persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness

symptoms of generalized anxiety
restlessness, feeling on edge, difficulty concentrating/mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance

panic disorder
characterized by sudden bouts of intense, unexplained anxiety; often associated with physical symptoms like choking sensations or shortness of breath; panic attacks can happen several times a day

characterized by disruptive, irrational fears of specific objects or situations; fear must be both irrational and disruptive

social phobia
produce fear in social situations; intense fear of being scrutinized by others, avoid potentially embarrassing social situations; fear of speaking in public

fear of situations the person views as difficult to escape from; fear of leaving one’s home or room in the house

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions; obsessions/compulsions being to take control of the person’s life

repetitive thoughts

repetitive actions

characterized by reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories (flashbacks) and dreams

post-traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances

stimulus generalization & reinforcement
2 learning processes that contribute to anxiety

biological factors
hereditary factors, brain functions appear to be different in an anxiety disorder patient; evolutionary factors

somatoform disorders
individual suffers from physical symptoms even though he/she has nothing physically wrong

conversion disorder
specific physical symptoms but no physiological basis

always think they have a disease

DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder)
characterized by and individual who experiences two or more distinct and alternating personalities

mood disorders
classification of disorders where there is a disturbance in the person’s emotions

major depressive disorder & bipolar disorder
major types of mood disorders

major depression
a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, 2 or more weeks of significant depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness & diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

twice as vulnerable to depression as men

stressful events
often precede depression

biological factors
mood disorders have a hereditary nature to them; depressed individuals tend to have depressed brains

norepinephrine & serotonin
two neurotransmitters play a role in mood disorders

social-cognitive factors
depression may be a variation of learned helplessness

the bad situation will last for a long time

they are at fault

all of life is bad

characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and action

symptoms of schizophrenia
delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate emotions/behaviors

person is more important than they really are; believe they are a famous person

people are out to get them; being followed, wiretapped

sin or guilt
person’s responsible for some misfortune

being controlled by outside forces

auditory, visual, tactile
types of hallucinations

paranoid schizophrenia
characterized by delusions of usually grandeur or persecution; auditory and other hallucinations support the delusions

catatonic schizophrenia
involves disturbances of movement or waxy flexibility; people usually pace nervously at times or remain frozen in an odd position for hours

disorganized schizophrenia
characterized by disorganized speech, behavior and inappropriate effect

undifferentiated schizophrenia
symptoms don’t clearly fit into one of the other types of schiz but still show clear symptoms of schiz

brain abnormality
dopamine overactivity; abnormal frontal lobes; out of sync neurons; increased activity in amygdala; enlarged fluid-filled areas & shrinkage of cerebral tissue

antisocial personality disorder
person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing; typically males whose lack of conscience becomes noticeable before age 15; feel and fear little; express little regret over violating others’ rights

trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth

biomedical therapy
a prescribed medication or medical procedure that acts directly on the patient’s nervous system

free association and dream analysis

humanistic therapy
aimed to boost self-fulfillment; attempt to reduce inner conflicts; client-centered therapy; environment provides unconditional positive regard

behavioral therapy
Counterconditioning- Exposure Theory (Systematic desensitization; Virtual Reality Exposure); Aversive Conditioning; Behavior Modification

cognitive therapies
based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions; therapy: seeks to make people aware of their irrational
negative thinking; replace negativity w/ new ways of thinking; practice a more positive approach in every day

group therapy vs. single therapy
cheaper; both are usually as effective; group- shows person they are not alone and get good feedback

family therapy
helps family members to heal relationships and mobilize family resources; help family to be viewed as a system of roles

biomedical therapy
physically changing the brain’s functioning by altering its chemistry with drugs, or affecting its circuitry with electroconvulsive shocks, magnetic impulses or psychosurgery

study of drug effects on mind and behavior

antipsychotic drugs
used to treat schiz. and other forms of sever thought disorder; similar to molecules of dopamine; can produce sluggishness, tremors, and twitches; long term can lead to tardive dyskinesia

tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs

antianxiety drugs
depress the CNS activity; often used in combo with psychological therapy

antidepressant drugs
also used to treat anxiety dis. like OCD; increase the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin; selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs)- partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses; side effects: dry mouth, weight gain, hypertension, or dizzy spells

mood stabilizing meds
simple salt- lithium; effective for those suffering emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
shock treatment; anesthetic & muscle relaxant, 30-60 sec of electrical current to brain; 80% improved markedly with no discernible brain damage; effective for severe depression who have not responded to drug therapy; 4 in 10 patients relapse with in 6 months

alternative neurostimulation therapies
a chest implant that intermittently stimulates the vagus nerve, which sends signals to the brain’s mood-related limbic system

magnetic stimulation
produces no seizures, memory loss, or other side effects; used to combat major depression

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy into the brain

deep-brain stimulation
experimental treatment pinpointed at a brain depression center; excite an overactive depressed section of a patient’s brain to inhibit the negative emotion-feeding activity

removes or destroys brain tissue

once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients; cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain; effects: decreased the patient’s misery or tension but produced permanently lethargic, immature, uncreative person

today’s psychosurgery
used for uncontrollable seizures; MRI-guided precision surgery is also occasionally done to cut the circuits involved in severe OCD; irreversible

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Which of the following statements is false? b. someone suffering from depression will get better only with therapy or medication. The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder dramatically increases if you c. have a parent or sibling with the …

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Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of adhd Phobias are most likely to be characterized by a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

psychological disorder behavior that is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable medical models holds tht psychologicial disorders are illnesses that can be diagnosed, treated, and curedm using traditional methods of medicine and psychiatry WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

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