Unit 1 Introduction to Pharmacology Lecture Notes

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manages
cures
Drug therapy “__________” diseased states, but rarely __________ a disease.

antibiotic
A major drug class that might cure a disease is an __________ that treats a bacterial infection.

manage
cure
Most drug classes __________ diseased states without a __________.

managed
increase
Hypertension is __________ with medication. If the patient stops taking the medication, blood pressure will __________.

drug
A __________ alters an existing process in a quantitative manner.

existing
increase
An injection of adrenalin would take an __________ heart rate and __________ the number of beats per minute.

1. 1938 Food & Drug Cosmetic Act
2. 1962 Kefaver-Harris Amendment
2 Major Federal Laws Govern Pharmaceuticals

safe
The 1930 Food & Drug Cosmetic Act requires that the product must be __________ but not necessarily effective.

effective
The 1962 Kefaver-Harris Amendment requires that the product must be __________.

all medication already on the market
A grandfather clause exempted __________ at the time the 1962 Kafaver-Harris Amendment was implemented.

1980’s
In the __________ the Food & Drug Administration began looking at all drugs that were exempted by the grandfather clause and many of them have been subsequently pulled from the market.

Homeopathic
herbal
__________ and __________ products are exempt from regulation by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

True
T or F
Pharmaceutical companies must perform studies that cost a substantial amount of money in order to obtain approval for a medication to be marketed.

new use
new route
Studies are required each time a company want approval for a __________ of an existing medication or a __________ of administration.

The company must finance studies for approval.
If a company has a medication that is approved in tablet form but want to produce an injection form of the medication, what must the company do?

Yes
Are pharmaceutical companies required to perform studies if two already approved ingredients are now going to be mixed into one product? (i.e. combining Tylenol and Codeine)

analgesic
narcotic
Tylenol is an approved __________. Codeine is an approved __________.

animal
human
Drug studies first begin with __________ studies, the proceed through four phases of __________ studies.

the FDA approves a drug for marketing
When __________, it then goes into the fourth and final stage.

True
T or F
The consumer must pay for the drug in the fourth and final stage of testing.

monitor
adverse reactions
Health care providers are required to __________ patients on a drug in the fourth and final stage of testing and report any __________ to to the FDA.

True
T or F
There have been many instances recently in which a drug had been approved by the FDA for marketing and then later was pulled from the market because of new and serious adverse reactions.

Rezulin
__________, a drug to treat diabetes, was found to cause liver failure and death to nearly 50 individuals.

double blind
In a __________ study, both the investigator and patient do not know what the patient is receiving. (i.e. study drug or placebo)

single blind
In a __________ study, the investigator knows, but the patient does not know what is being administered.

potential bias
Double blind studies have better statistical relevance due to the elimination of __________.

trade
Usually, the first company to patent a medication provides the __________ name for that product.

generic
The __________ name of a drug is not capitalized.

trade
The __________ name of a drug is capitalized.

bioavailable/bioequivalent
Once a drug comes off patent and a generic company is allowed to manufacture the product, the generic company only needs to prove that their product is __________ to the first manufacturer’s product.

human
absorbed
For a generic company to prove that their product is bioavailable/bioequivalent, __________ studies are conducted to determine that the product is __________ similar to the product produced by the original manufacturer.

addiction
abuse
Controlled substances have __________ and __________ potential.

Legislation
__________ was passed to limit accessibility to controlled substances.

illegal drugs
research license
Schedule I drugs are __________ that could not be legally administered by a health care professional, unless they have a special __________.

True
T or F
Some schedule I products are listed as illegal even though similar, legal products are produced by drug manufacturers.

schedule I
schedule II
Rock cocaine is __________ while topical cocaine used in nasal procedures is __________ and legal.

California
pre-printed prescription form
outpatient
II
V
In the state of __________, a physician must use a special __________ in order to prescribe an __________ prescription for any controlled substance schedule _____ through _____.

III
IV
V
A physician may call the pharmacy to authorize a prescription for a schedule _____, _____, or _____ controlled substance.

False
A physician may call the pharmacy to authorized a prescription for a schedule II controlled substance.

inpatient (hospital)
A special form is NOT required for __________ prescribing of a controlled substance.

schedule II narcotic
schedule III
In several instances a __________ combined with aspirin or acetaminophen (Tylenol) becomes a __________ controlled substance.

So that the provider…

1. Does NOT need to write a triplicate prescription
2. Can phone in the prescription

2 Reasons Schedule II Narcotic Is Combined With Aspirin or Acetaminophen (Tylenol) To Become A Schedule III Product

testosterones
Due to the abuse of __________ by athletes as an anabolic steroid, they are now listed as a controlled substance.

Schedule IV
__________ is the most prescribed class of controlled substances.

low
Schedule V has a__________ potential for abuse.

V
Cough syrups are schedule _____.

Narcotics
__________ are cough suppressants in many cough syrups.

sick
In order to abuse the narcotic in cough syrups, the individual would need to drink a substantial amount of cough syrup that would make the individual __________. This is why people tend not to abuse the narcotics in cough syrups.

absorbed
degree of distribution
elimination rate
The dose of a drug is determined by the amount __________, __________, and __________.

0%
Absorption can be as low as _____%

orally
oral
Some drugs, such as insulin or heparin cannot be administered __________ because there is no __________ absorption.

True
T or F
Some, medications are not meant to be absorbed.

No
Are antibiotics that kill intestinal bacteria meant to be absorbed?

go through the gastrointestinal tract
Antibiotics that kill intestinal bacteria only need to __________ and therefore do not need to be absorbed.

more
lesser
The __________ tissues a drug penetrates, the __________ amount of drug in the blood stream.

more
higher
The __________ tissues penetrated by a drug, the __________ a dose is required.

tissue we are treating
The ideal drug would penetrate the __________.

T
T or F
Very few drugs are specific enough to penetrate the tissues we are treating.

side effects
Penetrating more tissues leads to __________.

Albumin
__________ is the primary protein that binds drugs in the blood stream.

greater
lesser
The __________ amount of drug that is protein bound the __________ amount available to penetrate tissue.

penetrate tissues
manage a diseased state
If a drug is 99% protein bound, the only 1% is available to __________ and __________.

True
T or F
Drug B can displace Drug A from albumin if Drug B is more highly protein bound than Drug A.

toxicities
Introducing a second drug that is more highly protein bound than the first drug can lead to __________ if the dosage for both drugs are not adjusted to be administered together.

doses
Two highly protein bound drugs administered to a patient could lead to a serious drug interaction if the __________ are not modified.

1. kidney/urine
2. liver/metabolism
2 Major Routes of Elimination Of A Drug

faster
higher
The __________ the elimination, the relatively __________ the dose that is needed.

metabolism
liver
Drug interactions that increase or decrease __________ in the __________ can influence the dose of a drug.

induction
Phenobarbital can cause hepatic __________.

speeds up
increasing
Hepatic induction __________ the liver and requires __________ the dose of drugs eliminated through the liver.

inhibition
Cimetidine (Tagamet) can cause hepatic __________.

decreases
decreases
Hepatic inhibition __________ the elimination of some drugs requiring that the dose of those drugs be __________.

additive
Drug A increases heart rate 10 bpm
Drug B increases heart rate 5 bpm

Giving both drugs together increases heart rate 15 bpm

This is an example of __________.

synergy
Drug A increases heart rate 10 bpm
Drug B increases heart rate 5 bpm

Giving both drugs together increases heart rate 40 bpm

This is an example of __________.

two or more
Synergistic combinations of medications are utilized when treating serious infections with __________ antibiotics.

potentiation
Using meperidine (Demerol) a narcotic along with hydroxyzine (Vistaril) an antihistamine/antinauseant is an example of __________ because hydroxyzine by itself would not treat pain but given with meperidine makes it a much stronger narcotic analgesic.

weight
Most drugs are dosed based on patient __________.

body surface area
Cancer chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on the patient’s __________.

1.7/M²
The average person has a surface area of __________.

True
T or F
Some medications should not be administered to children due to adverse reactions.

Tetracyclines
__________ mottle the adult teeth of children.

Quinoline
__________ antibiotics affect tendon growth of children.

renal
liver
__________ and __________ function decrease with age.

elderly
Doses of some medications need to be decreased in the __________.

10%
Renal function for women is _____% less than for men.

kidney
liver
__________ or __________ disease will require dose adjustments.

avoidance
Known allergies to medications will require __________ of that family of drugs.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacokinetics Absorption–>Distribution–>Metabolism–>Excretion Absorption The movement of drug from site of administration to various tissues of the body. WE WILL …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Define the 3 phases of drug action 1. Pharmaceutic phase – drug becomes a solution to cross the biological …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy pharmacodynamics study of the mechanism of drugs pharmacokinetics study of the factors that affect the time course of drug …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharmacology Study of the biological effects of chemicals Pharmacotherapeutics Branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs (clinical pharmacology) WE …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is the definition of drug? Any substance that alters the function in a living organism An immunization is …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy adverse effect drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasanr or even dangerous brand name …

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