U.S. History – Chapter 14 & 15

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Black Tuesday
A name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
An agency established in 1932 to provide emergency financing to banks, life insurance companies, railroads and other large businesses.

Bread Line
A line of people waiting for free food.

Boulder Dam
A dam on the Colorado River, now called Hoover Dam, that was built during the Great Depression as part of a public works program intended to stimulate business and provide jobs.

Federal Home Loan Bank Act
A law, enacted in 1931, that lowered home mortgage rates and allowed farmers to refinance their loans and avoid foreclosure.

An arrangement in which a buyer pays later for a purchase, often on an installment plan with interest charges.

Herbert Hoover
31st President

Direct Relief
The giving of money or food by the government directly to needy people.

Buying on Margin
The purchasing of stocks by laying only a small percentage of the price and borrowing the rest.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
A law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in U.S. history, worsening the depression of America and abroad.

Bonus Army
A group of WWl veterans and their families who marched on Washington D.C., in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of a bonus they had been promised for military service.
10,000 to 20,000

Soup Kitchen
A place where free or low cost food is served to the needy.

Dust Bowl
The region, including Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, that was made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930s.

Dow Jones Industrial Average
A measure based on the prices of the stocks of 30 large companies, widely used as a barometer of the stock market’s health.

Alfred E. Smith
Democratic presidential candidate for the election of 1928 running against Herbert Hoover.

Great Depression
A period, lasting from 1929 to 1940, in which the U.S. economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed.

An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.

Price Support
The maintenance of a price at a certain level through government of intervention.

A neighborhood in which people live in makeshift shacks.

Federal Securities Act
A law, enacted in 1933, that required corporations to provide complete, accurate information on all stock buying.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Agency, created in 1933, to insure individuals’ bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
32nd President

Eleanor Roosevelt
Wife of the 32nd president.

Deficit Spending
A government’s spending of more money than it receives in revenue.

The Grapes of Wrath
A novel by John Steinbeck, published in 1939, that deals with a family of Oklahoma who leave the Dust Bowl for California.

National Labor Relations Board
An agency, created in 1935, to prevent unfair labor practices and to mediate disputes between workers and management .

Orson Welles
Actor, director, producer, and writer that created The War of the Worlds.

Tennessee Valley Authority
A federal corporation, established in 1933, to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods.
Men 18-25
3 million

Civilian Conservation Corps
An agency, established as part of the New Deal , that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion control and flood control projects.

National Industrial Recovery Act
Law, enacted in 1933, to establish laws of fair practices for industries to promote industrial growth.

Mary McLeod Bethune
Apppointed by FDR, she worked to ensure that the the NYA hired African – American administrators and provided job training and other benefits to minority students.

Glass-Steagall Act
The 1933 law that established the FDIC to protect individuals’ bank accounts

Grant Wood
Artist who painted American Gothic.

Richard Wright
Author of Native Son

Works Progress Administration
An agency, established as part of the Second New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields.

Huey Long
Lousiana Senator and most serious challenge to the New Deal.

Gone With The Wind
A 1939 movie dealing with the life of Southern plantation owners during the Civil War, one of the most popular films of all time.

National Youth Administration
An agency, that provided young Americans with aid and employment during the Great Depression.

Frances Perkins
America’s 1st female cabinet member

Social Security Act
A law, enacted in 1935, to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children.

Congress of Industrial Organizations
Industrial unions, founded in 1938, it merged with the AFL in 1955.

A government supported level for the prices of agricultural products, intended to keep farmers’ incomes steady.

New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform.

Securities and Exchange Commission
An agency, created in 1934 that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stock and bonds.

Agricultural Adjustment Act
A law, enacted in 1933, to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted , thus lowering production.

New Deal Coalition
An alliance of diverse groups, including Southern whites, African-Americans, and unionized workers, who supported the policies of the Democratic Party in the 1930s and the 1940s

John Collier
Appointed by FDR as a commissioner of Indian affairs.

Wagner Act
A law, also known as the National Labor Relations Act, enacted in 1935, to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.

Emergency Banking Relief Act
an act passed by the United States Congress in March 1933 in an attempt to stabilize the banking system.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration
created in 1932, the agency gave loans to the states to operate relief programs.

Patman Bill
a bill that was introduced by Texas Representative Wright Patman in 1932, which was intended to force the government to award bonus money to World War I veterans.

Federal Deficit
The amount by which a government’s expenditures exceed its tax revenues.

a native or inhabitant of Oklahoma.

What caused the Great Depression?
– Stock Market Crash
– Unemployment
– Agriculture
– Tariffs/ War Debts
– Credit
– Less money to spend
– Uneven Distribution of Income
-Bank failures

What affect did the Depression have on different groups of people in society?
African-Americans and Latinos had higher unemployment rates & they were the lowest paid. They also dealt with increasing racial violence from unemployed whites competing for the same job. Twenty-four African Americans died by lynching in 1933.

How did the Depression affect the family?
Family stood as a source of strength for most Americans. Many families entertained themselves by staying at home and playing games such as Monopoly and listening to the radio.

How did President Hoover’s response to the Depression change over time?
Hoover first believed that depressions were normal part of the economy cycle and that institutions, not the government, should intervene and help the people. However, after the stock market crash, Hoover positioned on government intervention in the economy and took a more activist approach.

Describe actions taken in the first New Deal
Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation that expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy. Finance and banking were regulated, rural assistance, work projects were provided, food,clothing and shelter were also provided.

Describe policies of the New Second Deal
Focused on helping farmers by passing laws, further expanded relief & Roosevelt together with Congress, set up a series of programs to help youths, professionals and other workers by opening administrations.

What trends shaped American culture during the Depression?
Wacky comedies, lavish musicals, love stories & gangster films all vied for the attention. Radio embodied the democratic spirits of the times. Realistic art was very big as well.

Indian Recognition Act
Passed 1934 and granted autonomy instead of recognition.

Who won re-election in 1936?
Franklin D. Roosevelt

Received fewer benefits than black.
Discriminated against by some New Deal thingies.

90% of households owned a radio and it was the most popular and most effective mean of communication

15,000 movie theaters
Gone With the Wind (1939)

Sober and Serious
Supported by New Deal Programs

Woody Guthrie
Captured the hardships of America in his songs

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation #2
Insured bank accounts up to $5000

3 main goals for the New Deal
Relief for the needy
Economic recovery
Financial reform

March 5th 1933
Closed all banks

21st Amendment
Repelled Prohibition

Civil Works Administration
4 million jobs
Built 40,000 schools
Built 500,000 miles of roads

Farm Security Administration
Loaned more than $1 billion to help farmers become landowners.

Industries in trouble
Railroads, textiles and steel struggling.
Mining and lumbering no longer in high demand

Uneven distribution of income
70% of families earned less than $2,500 a year

Banks closed
1929 – 600 banks closed
1933 – 11,000 banks closed

Financial Collapse
90,000 businesses went bankrupt
Unemployment rose from 3% – 25%

Effects on the American family
Suicide rose by 30%

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Franklin Delano Roosevelt US president in 1932 and pledged the New Deal to help American society Brain Trust nickname …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Between 1929 and 1932, U.S. gross domestic production fell by what percentage? 45% (almost half) What percentage of the …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy what economic problems lurked beneath the general prosperity of the 1920s? agricultural overproduction, uneven distribution of wealth, underconsumption, and …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy By the time the stock market crash had reached the bottom in 1932, stocks had lost almost 90% of …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy during the 1920’s what was true of farming conditions? more was produced than could be sold during the late …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Which group experienced an early depression in the 1920s? farmers during the 1920s, the US economy moved through which …

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