U.S. History Chapter 12 Study Guide

Define Huey P. Long’s “share our wealth” program.
Everyone in America should have the opportunity to share the wealth of America

What did the Emergency Banking Act allow the government to do?
Gave the government the power to investigate banks in order to decide whether some banks should shut down.

What happened to the stock market in 1937?
The stock market dropped significantly.

What was one of the big achievements for labor during the 1930s?
Gained the ability of collective bargaining (power to negotiate with businesses)

This woman’s job was to take pictures of Sharecroppers and Tenant farmers (the poorest of the poor) in order to gain support for New Deal programs to help these people?
Dorothea Lange

What was the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)? And what did it help do?
Insurance for people’s bank deposits; helped restore people’s confidence in the nation’s banks.

Thanks in large part to this New Deal Legislation, banks reopened with government assurances that they were on sound financial footing?
The Emergency Banking Act

What did Dorothea Lange do for the poorest of the poor (Tenant farmers and Sharecroppers)?
She immortalized them in the hearts and minds of people of America. (which led to getting financial support from the government)

How was President Roosevelt’s philosophy different from Herbert Hoover?
Roosevelt believed that in times of crisis, direct government aid to the people is necessary.

How did the government’s emergency relief change during the Second New Deal?
Government’s focus shifted from aid to the people to aid for the government funded employment opportunities

Which body caused significant blows to the New Deal’s attempts to bring change to the economy?
Supreme Court

This woman gathered information for President Roosevelt, traveled, wrote, and advocated for social programs?
Eleanor Roosevelt

To increase the public’s confidence in the banks and economy, list three things Roosevelt did?
The Emergency Banking Act, the Glass-Steagal Act, and fireside chats

What act established the minimum wage?
The Fair Labor Standards Act

Who was the president that named Frances Perkins secretary of labor- by doing so she became the first woman ever to serve in the presidential cabinet.
Roosevelt

Relief, recovery, and reform were the three goals of what?
The New Deal

What was created in order to address the unemployment of young men between the ages of 18-25?
The Civilian Conservative Corps

What provided work to artists in the fields of writing, theater, music, and the visual arts?
Federal Project Number One

During the first 100 days of the first new deal, why were farmers paid NOT to grow crops?
To raise demand for crops and therefore, increase price so that farmers would be able to make money.

By attempting to pack the Supreme Court with judges friendly to his new deal policies in 1937, what happened to Roosevelt?
He lost support from some within his own party and that of many in the general public.

What was an effect of President Roosevelt appointing African Americans to key positions in government and other important areas?
For the first time African Americans left Republican Party and began siding with the Democrats

How did the New Deal change the relationship between business and labor (the workers)?
The National Industry Recovery Act guaranteed workers the right to form unions (Wagner Act)

Why did nearly 80 million Americans spend money to go to the movies each week during the 1930s?
They wanted to escape their problems and the people that made movies realized that so they kept the Great Depression out of the movies. 5000 movies were produced throughout the decade.

President Roosevelt embraced the theories of who?
John Maynard

Define the relief programs of the New Deal.
These programs offered some relief, but the pay was too low for recipients to live comfortably. This is because the relief programs were only meant to be temporary.

Explain why 1937 was a troubled year for Roosevelt and his New Deal?
He argued with congress for a plan that would let him appoint justices and make more justice positions. Congress did not pass it; he argued with them for much of 1937.

Explain how the New Deal came to an end.
Roosevelt lost support within his party and the American public because of his fight with Congress about his court-packing plan. The economy began failing again between 1937-1938 causing him to lose even more support. By 1938 it was basically over.

During President Franklin Roosevelt’s first 100 days, what initial actions did he take to stabilize the economy? Explain why he did these things.
He proposed the New Deal that called for relief, recovery, and reform of the economy. He passed the CCC, AAA, NIRA, PWA, the Federal Securities Act, SEC, and the TVA. He did this to repair the damages of the Great Depression and to help prevent another depression from occurring.

Explain the nature of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s political partnership and how did Eleanor Roosevelt forever change the role of the First Lady?
Eleanor was his eyes and ears because he had polio. She helped him know what was going on with the American people and such. She was the first First Lady to have an agenda and take on any projects.

What were the 2 key programs of the second new deal and explain what these programs did for American people.
The Works progress Administration eventually employed 8.5 million Americans; it also built roads, subways, airports, even zoos. The Social Security Act provided a pension, or guaranteed, regular payments, for many people 65 and older; retired workers never had to fear hunger and homelessness once too old to work.

Explain two ways in which the New Deal significantly impacted America in the 1930s?
The relief programs gave billions of dollars to the poor Americans. The New Deal also passed the WPA, which built 2,500 hospitals and nearly 6,000 schools; it provided many Americans jobs.

Great Depression the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s. Stock Market Crash Spark of the Great …

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd US President – He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation’s leader during most of WWII. Had a very easy election because of resentment against …

Franklin Delano Roosevelt US president in 1932 and pledged the New Deal to help American society Brain Trust nickname given by the press to a diverse group of men and woman whom Roosevelt sought out to help him with the …

Herbert Hoover President when the stock market crashed – Believed in little government interference – he was unpopular with the public and some blamed him for the Depression Franklin Roosevelt Became President in 1933 – Developed the New Deal – …

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