Types of training

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In my PEP, I have chosen to follow these types of training: Continuous and Fartlek training. These types of training fit my chosen sport perfectly, as each allows me to work on my primary attribute of cardiovascular endurance. Continuous training will allow me to work on my cardiovascular endurance solely; this to increase the ranges of my aerobic training thresholds. Continuous training means the person training is using about 60-80% of their energy for a long period of time.

This method suits long distance runners and joggers because it means that their endurance levels will increase, and it is the way which they would normally compete. Continuous training is a good way for an athlete to build up their cardio-vascular endurance levels. Continuous forms the basis for all other training methods both anaerobic and aerobic. For an orienteer, this is essential; it requires a large amount of trekking over long distances, which requires good stamina.

Fartlek training, however, allows me to assimilate to a variety of terrains and gradients of slopes, and temperatures and altitudes, just like the terrain in Orienteering. It will mentally prepare me for each of these possibilities, so as to not get too worn out when the situation demands concentration. Fartlek is a form of running or cross country running in which the runner, usually solo, varies the pace significantly during the run. It is usually regarded as an advanced training technique, for the experienced runner who has been using interval training to develop speed and to raise the anaerobic threshold. However, the ‘average’ runner can also benefit from a simplified form of Fartlek training, to develop self-awareness and to introduce variety into the training program.

This includes the development of aerobic and anaerobic training zones: I will focus solely on the former, as the latter is not needed. Progression is closely related to overload. It simply means increasing the overload over a period of time-not all at once. However, it is generally accepted that if a person starts out by increasing anything in their exercise program by x amount each day, they can progress by increasing one variable inversely proportional to it or decreasing one variable directly proportional to “x”. Progression seems to happen naturally as exercises feel easier over time – I will become willing of more of a challenge by increasing the intensity, duration and frequency of the exercises.

If progression is not considered, there will be little point in starting out a personal exercise program in the first place; the main purpose of it is to increase my aerobic fitness, so I will need to progress in this to make any use of it. In my Personal exercise Program, I have increased each exercise I have done by a suitable unit e.g. on the treadmill, I have increased the distance I must run for continuous training.

Reversibility: If I stop training after time because of lack of interest, relaxation or injury, I must consider that I cannot pick up exactly where I left off. The body seems to lose muscle much more quickly than it is gained. A general proportion is 3:1; missing one week’s training requires three weeks to get back to the same level. If I am unable to train for a length of time, I must first begin with regaining my cardiovascular level: this will help your body fuel the muscles where you need to rebuild strength.

If reversibility is not considered, my training program will not take into account any injuries I have sustained. I will then not be able to start at a proper level of training, and lose interest quickly because I cannot meet the demands of my program. I must greatly decrease my level of exercise for three weeks if I were to experience this for a week. I have applied this in my training program by, on the second week; I had missed two days, and thus had to create an exercise program equal to that of the last week.

Overload: Overload is closely related to Progression; however, it greatly increases the body’s strain than more it is used to, to grow to a higher level in later times more quickly. These include increasing each type of variable of this principle -frequency, intensity, time and type. Only one of these must be increased, however, to prevent injury, and apply each to my chosen form or endurance – cardiovascular.

If overload is not considered, in my chosen sport, I will not be sufficiently prepared for the main events I take part in Orienteering. I will not greatly increase in fitness over a long period of time, and will need to train for longer i.e. more weeks in my exercise program, to gain an equal level of which I had introduced overload into the regime. In my PEP, I have introduced this in the third and fifth week to maximize my possible fitness within the 6 week schedule.

Specificity: As I am training for a greater cardiovascular endurance, I need to consider what muscles and types of fitness are emphasized in this sport. As I am training to increase cardiovascular endurance I need to do more cardiovascular activities. In my training program, I will need to consider activities specific to my sport; there is very little point in weight training, but a huge factoring part in Orienteering is the use of different terrains. Fartlek training will allow me to assimilate to these, and thus are specific for my sport.

If this particular principle of training was not observed, the point of my training program would be made redundant; training specific to me would be diluted by irrelevant practices, and I would never achieve my main goal in my limited time period. In my training program, I have used different activities specific to Orienteering e.g. walking up hills, an obstacle most likely met in Orienteering.

For the Overload principle, the sub-sections of this part of training should be observed and changed at different parts of the program: Frequency: This is how often my exercise takes place in a single session or time period. Increasing this will normally mean increasing the number of repetitions in a set time period. In my training program, I increased this by increasing the miles in a set period for a single day in week 4. This will increase my cardiovascular endurance. Intensity: This is how hard I train in a certain period of time. Increasing this will normally mean increasing the weights lifted in a certain event, though in my case, it involves increasing the upward incline of a slope on a treadmill in continuous training. I have increased the gradients of slopes and terrains (simulated through machinery) in certain parts of my program.

Time: This is increasing the duration of a session, while keeping all other variables the same. Increasing this normally means adding a number of seconds onto the time period. In my case, this is an important variable: it is important for developing my cardiovascular endurance. I have done this many times in my personal exercise program, by increasing the seconds running on a treadmill. Type: What kind of exercise: I must vary what I do to keep it interesting, and to work all the different muscles involved. I have done this by changing the different areas of the body to work on and different machines used in my program.

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