Things to Know (History)

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How did the Cold War develop in the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States?
-Soviets distrust grew with the US, and GB because of the growing influence of capitalism in Europe due to the US
-The US were scared communism would spread and the us would lose trade partners
-US wanted to contain communism
-Battleground in Europe due to the “Iron Curtain”

What kinds of conflicts resulted from the global confrontation between the two superpowers?
-Korean war: Democratic South vs Communist North
-Vietnamese war: Democratic South vs Communist North
-Soviet war in Afghanistan: (Russia) Help the new communist regime against capitalist gorillas (us)

Identify similarities and differences between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.
Similarities: Global superpowers with nuclear capabilities
Differences: (Russia) Communist vs (us) Capitalist

How was the economic development of Western Europe during the Cold War years similar to or different from Japan?
Similarities: Marshal plan helped fund countries
Differences: Korean War helped the Japanese economy and where trading partners with the US (Japan)

How was trade important to the economic development of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan during the postwar decades?
Internalizing labor in Japan created a flexible labor force in post-war Japan.As a result, they had more inventory to trade.****

What factors contributed to the economic booms after WWII in Western Europe, the United States, and Japan? Why was the economic performance of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union different?
The economic performance of Eastern Europe was different from the Soviet Union because a centralized, non-ownership, economy was not established until much later.****

Why was the Soviet Union unable to keep up with the market economies of the
West?
The Soviet Union could not keep up with the economies of the West, because it was not an efficient government. ****

How did Gorbachev’s reforms lead to the breakup of the Soviet Union?
– Gorby gave more freedom to the people, but once they had a taste of civil rights, they kept wanting more and more. Tried to reform. He ended censorship, pulled out of the cold war, ordered perestroika, allowed for a free market rise. Killed economy and raised unemployment.

Why were Eastern Europeans able to break free of Communist governments and Soviet domination in the late 1980s?
– At this time, the Communist countries were failing and unable to enforce their governmental regime elsewhere. Gorby declared that he would not intervene in the Eastern European reforms.
– Demands for freedom increase. Hungary quietly reforms. Poland embraces solidarity in independent labor unions, changing the landscape of the economy. East Germany bans Soviet publication because the Soviets were becoming too capitalist, but they could still watch TV broadcasting from West Germany. This exposure caused East Germans to call for change. Czechoslovakia splits (partitioned by Germany during the war, but united after) into Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

During the Cold War, many nations formed alliances with one superpower for protection against the other. After the Cold War, the United States emerged as the sole superpower. How might this change the nature of alliances?
– More nations want to ally with the U.S.
– Less opposition to any challengers of U.S. diplomacy.
– Made U.S. a protectorate against all international aggression.

How did the WWI peace settlement help cause WWII?
– It crippled Germany’s economy and their moral. They could burn their money and it was cheaper than buying coal. The demoralized condition made them extremely vulnerable to the leadership of an engaging speaker who promised to make Germany a world power again.

How was the Munich Conference a turning point in the road toward world war?
– The Munich Conference was a turning point towards World War II because Britain and France caved in to Hitlers demands. Even though Hitler had promised not to try to further exand Germany’s territory he did not keep his word. Britain and France realized appeasement had failed and knew they had to protect Poland when Germany invaded. This is what started World War II.

Describe Hitler’s Blitzkrieg tactics.
– Used improved tank and air power to soften up the area and then create a devastating blow to air fields and cities. They bombed troops and civilians alike. Their fast-moving tanks could surround entire divisions of troops and force them to surrender.

Referring to the Battle of Britain in 1940, Winston Churchill said, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” What did he mean?
– Winston Churchill, the new Prime Minister, was talking about the British Royal Air force who had greatly helped the war effort and stopped a lot of Hitler’s invasion plans.
– A significant turning point of World War II, the Battle of Britain ended when Germany’s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despite months of targeting Britain’s air bases, military posts and, ultimately, its civilian population. Britain’s decisive victory saved the country from a ground invasion and possible occupation by German forces while proving that air power alone could be used to win a major battle.

What conditions in Russia challenged progress during the early 1800s?
-Emancipation of Serfs, led to hard times
-Rigid Social structure
-Absolute power (monarch)

How did Russian tsars typically react to change?
-Using violence like 1905 russian revolution

How did WWI contribute to the collapse of the Russian monarchy?
-Incompetent generals
-Corruption
-no public confidence
-Famine
-strained resources

How did the Bolsheviks take power in Russia
-Seized a seat in the provisional government

How did Lenin adapt Marxism to conditions in Russia?
called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat”

What were the causes and effects of the civil war in Russia?
First, the government after the Tsar stepped down was much disorganized. The socialists wanted to spread their ideas and control Russia. They turned to the working class and peasants for support. This made it easy for the Red army to win the civil war and take over Russia which led to a strong Communist party under Lenin.

In what ways was the Bolshevik revolution in Russia similar to the French revolution of 1789? In what ways was it a new type of revolution?
Similarities:
-Overthrow the monarchy
-Cop d’ état
Diferences:
-In france, the revolution returned to a of Monarchy
-In Russia the revolution turned into a Communist state

How did the ideas of Einstein and Freud contribute to a sense of uncertainty?
-They both challenged reason
-Freud said the subconscious mind drives much of human behavior
-Einstein challenged Newton

How did the literature and art of the 1920s reflect the influence of WWI?
-Most of the literature was a direct reflection of the war (WW1)
-Turmoil of the war effected even those who did not go

How did Britain and France emerge from WWI as both winners and losers?
Winners:
-The war
Losers:
-Political divisions
-financial scandals

What steps did the major powers take to protect the peace? Why did these moves have limited effects?
-The major powers signed treaties in Locarno to settle borders, to renounce the use of war, and to reduce the size of their navies. They also participated in the League of Nations.
-Kellog Brained Pact: an agreement not to use war to solve problems
-The Kellogg-Briand Pact was unable to be enforced, and the League of nations failed.

What imbalances helped cause the Great Depression of the 1930s?
-Overproduction
-NYSE all time high and invested in risky ways
-Federal Reserve raised interests rates
-Hurt demand
-Pulled money crashing the stock exchange
-The Depression: What imbalances helped to cause the Great Depression of the 1930’s? Be sure to include how each of the following contributed either to its outbreak or spread: over production, margin buying, high tariffs, war loans. The Great Depression was caused by many great imbalances that came together at one time. Factories were manufacturing goods at a high pace during the war. When the war ended the production pace was still very high. Farmers did not earn as much after the war causing a big imbalance because the cost of the factory items increased,but no one was able to purchase these goods. Margin buying also played a huge role in contributing to the Great Depression because people had bought stocks and were afraid that the stocks would not do well. So many people withdrew their money from the stock companies, the problem was that everyone took out their money at the same time, causing the New York stock crash. the U.S. placed high tariffs on items to protect themselves from foreign countries. the problem was that other countries also raised tariff prices causing everyone to stop buying from the global market.

What were the effects of the Great Depression?
-stock market and banking regulations
-FDR’s New Deal
-Shift from rural to urban settings

Describe Mussolini’s economic and social goals, and explain the actions he took to achieve them. Why did these goals appeal to Italians?
-Inspired bringing stability and glory to Italy
-Used the glory of Rome
-Used terror to support

List the similarities and differences between fascism and communism.
Differences:
-Led by the people (C)
-Fascism led by 1 charismatic leader, often symbol of the state (F)
-Religion is abolished (C)
-Worship the state; nationalism (F)
-Classless society (C)
-Strict class system (F)
Similarities:
-Have secret police
-Govt. controls human rights
-use of youth groups ex: nazi youth

What were the main goals and results of Stalin’s five-year plans? How did the effects differ between industry and agriculture?
-What were the goals and results of Stalin’s Five Year Plan? How did the effects differ between industry and agriculture? Stalin wanted improve things like industry, and farm output. To help make for heavy industry he provided those who did well with bonuses and punished those who didn’t. Even though industry rose, the standard of living wasn’t good. Stalin wanted workers in the city to have food from farmers so he pushed agriculture. He moved peasants to collectives which caused problems. Many peasants revolted against Stalin because of this

How did the command economy under Stalin differ from a capitalist economy?
The state planned the entire economy through the State Planning Commission, or Gosplan. They issued instructions and orders, commands that were then passed down to factories, businesses or farms. The government controlled the resources it needed to achieve the economic targets. Factories, mines, transport and farms were owned by the state.

Compare life under Stalin’s rule with life under the Russian tsars.
-the Tsar and Stalin thought nothing of having political rivals exiled(S)
-he State played the biggest role in industrialization(S)
-Both had enormous secret police organization.(S)
-The Monarchy was bound up with the Orthodox church; Stalin, despite training for the priesthood, was an atheist and hostile to the church. (D)
-The Monarchy was fabulously wealthy, as were most of the aristocracy; Stalin lived a modest life, he had no palaces, no court jeweller and no crown jewels. (D)
-Most people lived in the countryside under the Tsars’ they were urban dwellers under Stalin. (D)

What racial and nationalistic ideas did Nazis promote?
The Nazis promoted the idea of a German master race that would dominate Europe for 1,000 years. They promoted extreme antisemitism.

Why was propaganda an important tool of totalitarian dictators?
It craftily uses pieces of real fact, and twists these facts to blur the line between truth and what the dictator wants people to believe. Propaganda is a very powerful tool because it slowly influences people, often unconsciously.

Why did dictators gain power in much of Eastern Europe?
-worldwide depression/debt
-dictators promised to return to glory days of the past
-dictators banned opposition

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