A drug is any substance which, when taken into the body may modify one of its functions. A medicine is a drug that is used in the treatment or prevention of a disease, a example of medication can be parecetomal when a child has got the temperature the parents are always told to give their child parecetomal. A medicine is known to have to names they are the generic name which is the non-proprietary name, this is based on the medicines main ingredient, and the trade or brand name which is the manufacture name.
Below are the classifications of medicines from the legislation the Medicines Act (1978). Controlled Drugs (CD): controlled drugs are prescribed by doctors, it is important that they are maintained in a double locked cabinet and a record that is made in the CD register. Prescription only Medicines (POM): these are medicines that are dispensed at on the professional advice and the know how of health care professions i. e. Doctor or a General Practitioner working either in a hospital or based in a surgery.
Pharmacy only medicines (P): such medicines can only be handed out by a qualified pharmacist. General Sales List Medicines (GSL): such medicines are better known by the term over the counter medicines. Simply stated, unlike the above these medicines do not necessary need the approval of a qualified Doctor or physician. Complementary Medicines: these medicines are available through the counter such as super markets; minority of these medicines may be prescribed by a general practitioner. People can buy medications over the counter such as paracetmols.
Homeopathic Medicines: Most homeopathic remedies are derived from natural substances that come from plants, minerals, or animals, Unlike other medicines, these medicines do not have any side affects. Their capacity to cause structural damage is nothing. This is because the homeopathic medicines act by stimulating the body’s own defence mechanism and healing powers. They do not have any chemical action, so they do not have the potential to cause any constant damage. Homeopathic medicines can be given to children as well as adults.
Herbal Remedies: Herbal remedies are made from plant materials that are used to treat disease and maintain good health; people can prescribe these remedies by an herbal practitioner and can be bought by a health food shop. If a person is pregnant or breastfeeding then they should not use any herbal medicines as their safety hasn’t been established and they can possibly harm both parent as well the unborn baby. It is vital that people take advice from a medical practitioner (GP) when they are about to buy the herbal remedies as some can interact with traditional medicines.
People may buy herbal remedies for depression, and blood pressure. Chinese Medicines: Chinese Medicine is a complete medical system that is capable of treating disease in all its forms, these medicines are used to repair the imbalances within the body that have caused the disease. Chinese Medicine can be in use by people of any age. The person’s practitioner will take any previous or current illness or medication into account before they provide the treatment.
Chinese medicine can be can be prescribed by someone who is more knowledgeable about these medicines such as a traditional Chinese medical practitioner or people can buy these over the counter, for example in a super market or healthy food shops. Controlled Drugs: Controlled drugs have certain limits about prescribing medicine, the storage and the recording, examples of controlled drugs are morphine, fentanyl and methylphenidate. All of controlled drugs are stored in a CD cupboard that meets the terms with the Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations (1973).
The CD is a double skinned metal cabinet which has a double lock and an internal hinge. It is important that all are added within the CD register in addition to the drug chart, the CD register contains the patients name, whether any one has witnessed anything regarding their medication, and if anything happens to the drug then the qualified health care workers need to make sure that they record this down this is why it is important that the transactions are recorded by two people the person that undertook the transaction and the second person that witnessed it.
When doing this the health care worker should write down their name as well as the patients and most importantly they should record down the exact date and time. Below are the different ways of administrating medicine. Solid Dose Oral Formulations: these are either made as tablets or capsules, tablets or capsules may be formulated to slowly release the medicines and so, if released all at once, people must be aware of the fact that it may cause an overdoes.
If people crush the tablets than it may have an adverse effect on their health because of the particles that are inhaled. if people do not like taking tablets than an liquid form of medicine is available which can be more expensive. Inhalation: inhalation is a substance in the form of a vapour or gas that is inhaled, especially as a medicine or for its soothing effect. People may use this process when they have respiratory problems such as asthma, it allows the medication within the inhaler to travel through the human body and where it is needed, such as the lungs.
Inhalers are available in super markets as well as a health shop or chemist, people that need inhalers can also get them prescribed from the doctors and pharmacists, it is important that people who are asthmatic prove that the inhaler is for them as some people can abuse the medicine. Large volume spacers are available on prescription too. These make aerosol inhalers easier to use and more effective. They trap the medicine inside the spacer, so people do not have to worry about pressing the inhaler and breathing in at exactly the same time.
Individuals can also get an inhaler as a spray. Infusion: infusion is a type of fluid and medicine that’s given to the patient through their vein, this process takes place after a period of hours. Individuals who need infusion are looked after by trained nurses or health care professions. Infusion are available in hospitals but some patients may be provided with a needle and do it themselves at home, so it saves time for them to keep coming to the hospital.
Patients are trained to inject themselves with the needle or a family member may do it for them. Patients can often return to their normal routines and even, in some cases, return to work while still on therapy. Instillation: instillation is when medicine is used for ears, nose or eyes. People would use ear drops for when they have wax or infection, eye drops may be used for dry eyes or treatment of glaucoma, and people may use nose drops when they have an infection or mainly when they have got hay fever, all these procedures are done by instillation.
These medications are available in chemists, and supermarkets. An example of medication that is used for instillation is sodium chloride. Vaginally: pessaries are formulated to be administrated through this route, these are usually used to treat conditions of the vagina. It is important that a professional health care worker such as nurse should administrate this medication by a named individual basis only.
The common medication that is administered for the vagina is clotrimazole in other words canestan, this medicine is used it order to treat fungal infections of the surroundings of the vagina, which may take place due to a course of antibiotics. Other formulations are used for vaginal infections such as vaginal cream, the vaginal cream is worn with a special applicator, or if a person has the fungi thrush on the vagina or within it then a tablet is given, this is inserted within this vagina again with a special applicator.
The tablet can be administered by a pharmacist a prescription is needed. Topically: the term topically means applying it on the skin. Creams, ointments, and gels are applied on the skin to treat causes such as eczema which is rash and psoriasis. Health care workers that come across with patients who have eczema may have to apply it on the patient or show them how it should be applied. All health care workers should be aware of the fact that they should wear disposable gloves, the normal gloves or latex free gloves.
The reason why gloves should be worn when applying the cream on the patient skin is because if the nurse had a cut on her hand then the medication within the cream can attack the cut and can make the infection worse, wearing the disposable gloves also prevents cross-contamination. Transdermally: a Transdermally patch is becoming more common of administration, some examples include Fentanyl patches, Hormone replacement therapy patches and Nicotine replacement patches.
The drug within the patch takes time to absorb. Once the medication is absorbed through the skin the medication travels through the bloodstream. When a individual buys the patch there is always a leaflet explaining the side affects of the patch and where you should apply, the most common sites is the chest, upper arms and back of hands, for example people that try to stop smoking buy the nicotine replacement patches, this particular patch is worn on the upper arm, on a clean, dry, hair free skin.