The Muscular System

The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles can be completely autonomous (Wikipedia, 2010). There are three different types of muscles: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. Skeletal muscles are connected at either or both ends to a bone so move parts of the skeleton. They are also called striated muscles because they have a series of striped or striated, thread-like myofibrils. They can also be controlled voluntarily.

Cardiac muscles include the muscles of the heart. They move involuntarily, meaning that they are incapable of being moved by conscious thought. They are controlled by the sinus node influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscles are controlled directly also by the autonomic nervous system and are involuntary. They include muscles of the viscera, like the walls of blood vessels, intestines, and other hollow structures and organs in the body. As stated above, skeletal muscles move voluntarily. They need to be stimulated by the nervous system.

They are excitable and are subject to depolarization by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACH), released at the neuromuscular junction by motor neurons, then binds to the receptor sites. Stimulation of the receptor sites causes an electrical impulse to form in the muscle membrane. The electrical impulse travels along the muscle membrane and penetrates deep into the muscle and stimulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium into the sarcomere (a contractile unit of a mofibril) area. Calcium allows the actin, myosin, and ATP to interact, causing cross-bridge formation and muscle contraction.

This process continues as long as calcium is available to the actin and myosin. Muscle relaxation occurs when calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, away from the actin and myosin. When calcium moves in this way, the actin and myosin cannot interact, and the muscle relaxes. (Contraction and Relaxation, 2005). References: Contraction and Relaxation (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2010, from http://www. innvista. com/ health/anatomy/contract. htm Muscle contraction (2010). Retrieved May 7, 2010 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/ Muscular_system

The muscular system is one of the various systems in the human body and it helps in the movement of all the body parts. It is made up of all the body skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles under …

Introduction             Body movement is the main function of the muscular and the skeletal system.  This is a system consisting of the skeletal muscles and the bones involved in movement of the body.  The two are connected by a connective …

Excitation-contraction coupling is the combination of the electrical and mechanical events in the muscle fibres and is related by the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (Silverthorn, 2007) In the skeletal muscle, action potential in the nerves is generated …

The thought of stepping up to reach stimulates the frontal lobe of the brain which controls voluntary muscle movements. An action potential is carried by upper motor neurons down descending nerve tracts of the central nervous system to synapse with …

Upper extremity muscles include muscles that connect the scapula to the thorax and support its motion, muscles that connect the humerus to the scapula and allow motion of the arm, and muscles situated in the arm or forearm that allow …

T OR F? Smooth muscles play a role in regulating pulse. false T OR F? guillian- barre syndrome is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system. true WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

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