The Great Depression DBQ- Rachel Abbe

On Margin
paying only part of the cost of the stock when making a purchase and pay off the rest monthly; huge cause for the depression because many investors were unable to pay off their debts, causing the stock market, economy, and banks to fail

Black Tuesday
Tuesday, October 29; so many people sold their stocks to the NY Stock Exchange, causing the price/value of the stocks to dramatically drop

Great Depression
the period of economic hard times that followed the crash; 1929-1941

Bankrupt
unable to pay off debts, so forced to shut down/go out of business

Relief Programs
programs to help the needy

Soup Kitchens
places where the hungry could get a free meal

Public Works
projects built by the government for public use

Hoovervilles
the shacks where the homeless lived

Bonus
an additional sum of money

Bonus Army
the group of veterans that camped out outside of Congress while demanding their bonus

Excrescence
a distinct outgrowth on a human or animal body or on a plant, especially one that is the result of disease or abnormality

Commissary
a restaurant in a movie studio, military base, prison, or other institution

Reminisce
indulge in enjoyable recollection of past events

Bank Holiday
a period of time (four days) in which all the banks in the country are closed temporarily

Fireside Chats
FDR’s radio speeches where he spoke from his chair next to the fireplace in the White House

Hundred Days
the period of time in which FDR got Congress to pass 15 major laws, stabilize the banks, set up “alphabet agencies,” and promote relief, recovery, and reform

New Deal
FDR’s plan that laid out three main goals: relief for the jobless, plans for economic recovery, and reforms to prevent another depression; revolutionary for establishing a non-laissez faire government system

Pension
a sum of money paid to people on a regular basis after they retire

Collective Bargaining
the process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract

Sit-Down Strike
a strike where workers stop their machines/work and refuse to leave their job until their employer recognizes their cause

Deficit Spending
the act of spending more money than one has

National Debt
the total sum of money the government owes

Migrant Worker
a person who moved from one region to another in search of work; 43% were farmers

Dust Bowl
the states from Texas to the Dakotas during the 1930’s that suffered from severe drought and dried out topsoil, causing the high winds to sweep the soil around in blinding dust storms; caused a lot of migration to other areas such as California

Black Cabinet
the African American unofficial advisors of FDR on African American topics

Civil Rights
the rights due to all citizens

Indian New Deal
a series of laws that gave Native American nations greater control over their own affairs

Emergency Banking Relief Act
the act Congress passed to begin the banking holiday

depression
an extended period of falling economic activity

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the measurement of dollar values of all goods and services produced in the U.S. over one year

overproduction
the problem that factories and farmers faced during the depression because they were producing goods at a high rate from WWI and the 1920’s, which never slowed down during the depression and reduced supply and demand

high tariffs
the taxes placed on foreign imports to try and give more Americans jobs by protecting them from foreign competition

FDR Controversies
the new deal gave the president too much power, there was threat of dictatorship due to the President’s excessive power, the government became much more intrusive in the public’s daily life, the new deal was considered an experiment in communism/socialism, and business leaders said that laborers had too much power

Court-Packing Scheme
FDR’s attempt to add 6 more justices to the Supreme court to make a total of 15 justices; caused a major public outcry because people were afraid the president had to much power and was trying to become a dictator- place justices in his favor

Legacies of the New Deal
growth in size and power of the federal government, acceptance of idea that government has a duty to help its needy citizens, acceptance of deficit spending, government support for rights of organized labor *no more laissez faire*

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
an act that was created to reduce the overproduction in farming by paying farmers to grow less- used farm agents to tell farmers to kill off surplus crops and cattle and to grow less crops

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
an act that was created to regulate competition, ensure full employment, and prevent unfair competition by passing codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and amount of hours (to share the work); originated from National Recovery Act (NRA)

Blue Eagle
a stamp that was put on products that accepted and followed the NIRA- products with the stamp were encouraged by the government for purchase

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
a government agency that secures depositors’ money in banks by taking tax money from banks and putting it into a fund that backs up certain banks in the event that the bank fails, so that the fund can reimburse the bank’s investors

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
an act that protects the rights of employees by giving employees the right to collective bargaining, secret-ballot elections, minimum wage, and prevents strikes that would result in a major economic pause by bringing in a mediator to resolve problems

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
a government program that would put more than 3 million young men to work for public works programs, or programs that would benefit the community (such as the construction of railroads, roads, parks, hospitals, and schools); gives men and their families $25 per month and 2 years worth of work with 3 meals per day and nights off

Social Security Act
an act passed by the government that established a formal pension system for the elderly/retired by taking working class taxes and a collection of money from people’s employers annually to put into a fund to distribute to people once they retire based on their previous annual income; also gave money to the unemployed until they found a job and gave money to people with disabled children; set up based on a social security number given at the birth of all children

Great Depression Statistics
at least a 14%, an average of 18%, and at most a 25% employment rate; 1/3 of all farmers lost their land; housing starters went down 90%; wages dropped 60%; more than 50% of America was in poverty; marriage rate fell by 20% (can’t afford to leave their parents); divorce rate dropped 24% (can’t afford to start a new household); birthrate dropped 15% (another mouth to feed)

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

Roaring Economy to Great Depression It made the economy weaker. What effect did the use of credit have on the economy in the 1920s? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Herbert Hoover President when the stock market crashed – Believed in little government interference – he was unpopular with the public and some blamed him for the Depression Franklin Roosevelt Became President in 1933 – Developed the New Deal – …

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