The Endocrine System Med Terminology

acromegaly
enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

addison’s disease
condition that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol or aldosterone

adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH)

aldosteronism
abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone

anabolic steroids

antidiuretic hormones (ADH)
Maintains water balance

antithyroid drug
medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

calcitonin
produced by thyroid, hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth

certified diabetes educator

Conn’s syndrome
disorder of the adrenal glands caused by the excessive production of aldosterone

cortisol
corticosteroid that has an antiflammatory action, regulates metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins in body

cretinism
congenital form of hypothyroidism

Cushing’s syndrome
condition caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

diabetes insipidus (DI)
condtion caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inabliity of the kidneys to respond to this hormone

diabetes mellitus (DM)
group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

diabetic coma
diabetic emergency caused by very high blood sugar

diabetic retinopathy
damage to the retina as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes; a complication of diabetes mellitus caused by leaking of blood vessels into the posterior segment of the eyeball is termed diabetic

electrolytes
mineral substances such as sodium and potassium that are normally found in blood

epinephrine (Epi, EPI)
stimulates sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear, also known as adrenaline

estrogen
hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle

exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

fasting blood sugar (FBS)
blood test to measure the glucose levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova in the ovaries of the female. in male it stimulates the production of sperm in the testes

fructosamine test (FA)
blood test that measures average glucose levels over the past three weeks

gestational diabetes mellitus
form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies

gigantism
abnormal growth of the entire body caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty

glucagon
hormone secreted by the alpha cels of the pancreatic islets in response to low levels of glucose in blood

glucose
blood sugar, basic form of carb/energy in body

glycogen
storage form of glucose in body

goiter
abnormal, nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland

Graves’ disease
autoimmune disorder in which the immune system stimulates the thyroid to make excessiv eamounts of thyroid hormone

growth hormone (GH)
regulates growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues

gynecomastia
condtion of excessive mammary development in male

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
autoimmune disorder in which the body’s own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

hemoglobin A1c testing (HbA1c)
The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you’re managing your diabetes. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications.

home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM)
test performed by the patient using a drop of blood to measure the current blood sugar level

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
hormone in either blood or urine, usually indication of pregnancy

human growth hormone therapy (GH)
stimulate growth when natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development

hypercalcemia
abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood

hyperglycemia
abnormally high concentration of glucose in blood

hypergonadism
excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hyperinsulinism
condtion marked by excessive secretion of insulin

hyperpituitarism
excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism

hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis
over production of thyroid hormones

hypoglycemia
abnormally low concentration of glucose in blood

hypopituitarism
not secreting enough hormones out of pit gland

hypothyroidism
deficiency of thyroid secretion

insulin
hormone secreted to break down and store energy in body

insulinoma
benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

insulin shock
diabetic emergency caused by very low blood sugar

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone(s)
a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals

laparoscopic adrenalectomy
minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA)
condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults

leptin
protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite

luteinizing hormone
stimulates ovulation in the female

melatonin
influences the sleep-wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle

myxedema
severe form of adults hypothyroidism caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion

norepinephrine
hormone and neurohormone, release as hormone by adrenal medulla dn neurohormone by sympathetic nervous system, raises blood pressure, strengthening the heartbeat and stimulating muscle contractions

oral hypoglycemic drugs
Used when there is a decrease in blood sugar

oxytocin
stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth

pancreatectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas

parathyroidectomy
surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

pheochromocytoma
benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes the release of excess epinephrine and norepinephrine

pinealoma
tumor of the gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin

pituitarism
any condition caused by a defect or failure of the pituitary gland

pituitary adenoma
slow-growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland that may or may not cause excess hormone secretion

polydipsia
excessive thrist

polyphagia
excessive hunger

polyuria
excessive urination

prediabetes
condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but no high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes

progesterone
hormone relaeased during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary

prolactinoma
benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin

puberty
process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body that is capable of reproducing

radioactive iodine treatment (RAI)
oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU)
test using radioactive iodine administered orally to measure thyroid function

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
overproduction of the antidiuretic hormone ADH, leading to bloating, water retention, and electrolyte

steroids
large family of hormone-like substances that share the same fat-soluble chemical structure

testosterone
steroid hormone secreted by the testicles and the adrenal cortex to stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics

thymectomy
surgical removal of the thymus gland

thymitis
inflammation of the thymus gland

thymosin
important part in the immune system by stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells

thyroid replacement hormone medication
Treatment for hypothyroidism or thyroidectomy

thyroid stimulating hormone assay (TSH)
Detect abnormal thyroid activity from excessive pituitary stimulation

thyroid storm/ thyrotoxic crisis
relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thyroxine (T4)
hormone that regulates the rate of metabolism and affect growth and rate of function of many other body systems

triiodothyronine (T3)
hormone that regulates the rate of metabolism and affect growth and rate of function of many other body systems

vasopressin
Control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in kidney tubules

acr/o
extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point

adren/o
adrenal glands

crin/o
secrete

-dipsia
thirst

gest/o gestat/o
bear, carry young, or offspring

glyc/o
glucose, sugar

gonad/o
gonad, sex glands

-ism
condition, state of

-megaly
enlargement

pancreat/o
pancreas

parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands

phag/o -phagia
eating, swallowing

pineal/o
pineal gland

pituit/o pituitar/o
pituitary gland

poly-
many

pubert/o
ripe age, adult

somat/o soma-
body

thym/o
thymus gland

thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid

Which term describes the excessive thirst that is symptomatic of diabetes insipidus? Polydipsia What gland secretes hormones that control the functions of the other endocrine glands? Pituitary WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

exophthalmos condition in which the eyeballs ported Graves disease caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone gynecomastia development of breast tissue in males symptom of adrenal feminization WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Thyroid Gland Located in the throat, bilobed gland connected by an isthmus Adrenal Gland Found close to the kidney WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Pancreas a …

Products of the body’s endocrine gland are A. hormones B. Enzymes C. Minerals D. Ions A. Hormones Hormones may consist of all the following except A. Steroids B. Proteins C. Carbohydrates D. Amines C. Carbohydrates WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Endocrine cells Release their secretions directly into bodily fluids Steroid hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to an intercellular receptor. True or false True WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

The products of the endocrine glands are __________. hormones Steroid hormones are lipid molecules synthesized from ___________. cholesterol WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample All hormones are …

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