All that we ever hear is the word “Bone Marrow Cancer” but never what occurs with it. One is not positive of the different dangerous of this disease or its outcomes until they know someone or themselves have caught the disease. The bone marrow within the human body is the flexible tissue found in the interior of the bones. Average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans. Per day the hematopoietic, which is the formation and development of blood cells, compartment of bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion cells. There are two different types of bone marrow.
One is the medulla ossium rubra (red marrow), which consists mostly of hematopoietic tissue and the other one is the medulla ossium flava (yellow marrow), that is mainly made up of fat cells. Introduction to Bone Marrow Cancer Bone marrow cancers are cancers that involve uncontrolled division of white blood cells or their present in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic process is regulated through mechanisms involving chemical messengers of the immune system. In any way if a failure was to occur with these messengers mechanisms, this can lead to the uncontrolled division of immature blood cells which creates the rise to the cancer.
All blood cells arise from multipotent stem cells called hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). This HSC gives rise to two types of cells termed as myeloid progenitor and lymphoid progenitor. Myeloid progenitor and lymphoid progenitor gives the rise to red blood cells and different types of white blood cells. Such a failure can occur due to variety of reasons including, spontaneous gene mutation due to chemicals and radiations, chromosomal aberrations, etc. Bone cancer life expectancy is dependent on many factors from early detection of symptoms, type of bone cancer, stage of bone cancer, treatment options, patient recovery, etc.
“Life expectancy of a bone cancer patient is a statistical prediction based on average ages of bone cancer patients at the time of their deaths after having first diagnosed the bone cancer and the treatment thereafter. Life expectancy of bone cancer can increase dramatically, if bone cancer can be detected very early. Remember that, if you feel pain in the joints, occasionally feverish or suffer from night sweating or pain in the bones, there is a high possibility that you have bone cancer. This must always be diagnosed quickly with the help of diagnostic tests such as bone scans and bone biopsy.
It will decide the staging of the cancer”1. (http://www. cancer8. com/bone-cancer/life-expectancy. html). The Types These are the Different types of cancers that assist with bone Marrow Cancer; The names of the cancers are the Multiple Myeloma, Leukemia, Acute Leukemia, Chronic Leukemia, and Lymphoma. Multiple Myeloma is implies a cancer of plasma. These are the antibody-producing B cells that arise and mature within the bone marrow. The symptoms include fever, anemia, brittle bones, weakened immune system, and abnormal bleeding.
Leukemia is mostly known as blood cancer is a set of cancers originating from the myeloid and lymphoid lineage of cells present in bone marrow. The cancerous calls arise in the bone marrow, and keep circulating throughout the body, rather than forming solid tumors. The symptoms include weakness and fatigue, weakened immune system leading to frequent infections, night sweats, and fever. Acute Leukemia arise from less mature cells, and progress aggressively. They can develop at any age. They include Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. It is a cancer arising from lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow.
It can affect children between the ages of 3 and 7 years. The other includes Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. It arises from the myeloid progenitor. It is more common in adults above the age of 40 years. Chronic Leukemia develop slowly, and less aggressive. They arise from relatively mature cells, and mostly affect adults. They include Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia arises from the B lymphocytes present in the bone marrow, and is often asymptomatic until the final stages. It affects adults above the age of 50 years.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia is the result of a chromosomal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22, in the immature granulocytes (the class of white blood cells that play an important role in mounting an immune response in the event of an infection) that arise from the myeloid progenitor. Lymphoma includes a set of cancers places by solid tumors that arise from lymphocytes. They can commonly be divided into two categories; such as Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, enlargement of liver and spleen, weakness, weight loss and chest pain.
The Diagnoses “The most common symptom of bone tumors is pain. In most cases, the symptoms become gradually more severe with time, including bone pain. Initially, the pain may only be present either at night or with activity. Depending on the growth of the tumor, those affected may have symptoms for weeks, months, or years before seeking medical advice. In some cases, a mass or lump may be felt either on the bone or in the tissues surrounding the bone” 2. (Medical Author: Jason C. Eck, DO, MS; Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr. , MD, FACP, FACR; Medical Editor:
Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD; http://www.medicinenet. com/bone_cancer/page3. htm#how_is_bone_cancer_diagnosed, ©1996-2013 Medicine Net, Inc). A blood test involving complete blood count gives the first indication of any abnormalities. The type of cancer is confirmed when the detailed tissue and cytological investigations including bone marrow biopsies, and tests to detect chromosomal abnormalities are used for identification. Imaging techniques like Computed Tomography (CT) scans are also used. Urine test to detect the presence of Bence Jones proteins is essential for the identification of multiple myeloma.
DNA-based methods are use now to identify the exact subtypes of the disease, and decide the appropriate treatment. The Treatments The treatments options for bone marrow cancers include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell therapy, surgery and bone marrow transplants. Chemotherapy involves chemical agents that are prescribed as an oral medicine or are administered intravenously. Radiation therapy implies the bombardment of affected tissue with high –energy gamma rays and X-rays. Immunotherapy is a method wherein the immune system of the body is triggered to act against the cancerous cells.
Stem cell transplants like hematopoietic stem cell transplant or peripheral blood stem cell transplant may also be used. These treatments help to restore the stem cells that are destroyed during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, transplantation techniques are not devoid of the risk of complications. One or combinations of treatments are used depending on the type and subtype of cancer, the stage at which it gets diagnosed, as well as the risks and physiology of the patient. After the treatment the are some side effects. 2.
“The main risks associated with surgery include infection, recurrence of the cancer, and injury to the surrounding tissues. In order to remove the entire cancer and reduce the risk of recurrence, some surrounding normal tissue must also be removed. Depending on the location of the cancer, this may require the removal of portions of bone, muscle, nerves, or blood vessels.
This could cause weakness, loss of sensation, and the risk of fracture of the remaining bone. You could be referred to a rehabilitation specialist for physical and occupational therapy after surgery to try to improve your strength and function” 3.(Medical Author: Jason C. Eck, DO, MS; Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr. , MD, FACP, FACR; Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD: http://www. medicinenet. com/bone_cancer/page5. htm#what_are_the_side_effects_of_treatment_for_bone_cancer; 1996-2013 Medicine Net, Inc).
Conclusion Bone Marrow Cancers is such a difficult cancer to understand. the is so much that still need to be discover about such cancer. The is so much more to this disease then what we know of. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop.
Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn’t make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells. Other causes of bone marrow disorders include your genetic makeup and environmental factors. Symptoms of bone marrow diseases vary. Treatments depend on the disorder and how severe it is. They might involve medicines, blood transfusions or a bone marrow transplant. The founding out of the disease and then going in for a transplant, is not all to it.
There are so much that applies. Like the different type of cancers that can assist with Bone Marrow Cancers. Bone marrow cancers include abnormalities in the proliferation of a distinct set of cells present in the bone marrow. An early diagnosis followed by immediate commencement of the appropriate treatment is crucial to control the progression of these cancers. This cancer is not as terrible as it seems compare to the others. If spotted early then treatment can be taken into action to put a stop to such disease.