The anatomy of the human brain – Chapter 1

Adrenal cortex
The outer layer of the adrenal gland; it releases hormones that regulate energy, metabolism, mineral balance, and reproductive behaviour.

Adrenal medulla
The core of the adrenal gland; it is activated by the sympathetic nervous system, and in turn it secretes hormones whose effects are similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that participates in the regulation of the body’s internal environment; it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from receptors in internal organs, and motor signals from the CNS back to the same internal organs.

Brain
The part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull.

Central nervous system
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located within the skull and spine.

Cervical region
The section of the spine that provides the flexible framework of the neck or cervix.

Dorsal roots
The 31 pair of sensory nerves that enter the spinal cord; they enter the spinal cord’s dorsal surface.

Gonads
The sex glands (i.e. ovaries in women and testes in men); they release hormones that influence both the development of female and male reproductive systems and the reproductive behaviour of adults.

Hypothalamus
The brain structure from which the pituitary gland is suspended; it secretes releasing hormones, which stimulate the release of tropic hormones from the pituitary.

Lumbar region
The section of the spine that supports the small of the back.

Parasympathetic nervous system
One of the two motor divisions of the autonomic nervous system; it tends to conserve energy during periods of quiescence; parasympathetic nerves project from the brain and from the sacral region of the spinal cord.

Peripheral nervous system
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located outside the skull and spine.

Pituitary gland
The gland that hangs from the hypothalamus; because it releases tropic hormones, it is often referred to as the master gland.

Sacral region
The section of the spine to which the bones of the pelvis are attached.

Somatic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that interacts with the external environment – it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from external receptors and receptors in joints and skeletal muscles, and it conducts motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles.

Spinal cord
The part of the central nervous system that is located in the spine.

Spinal grey matter
The H-shaped area of gray nervous tissue in the core of the spinal cord.

Spinal white matter
The area of white nervous tissue in the spinal cord; it surrounds the spinal gray matter.

Sympathetic nervous system
One of the two motor division of the autonomic nervous system; it tends to mobilize energy resources during periods of threat; sympathetic nerves project from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.

Thoracic region
The section of the spine to which the ribs are attached.

Ventral roots
The 31 pairs of motor nerves that exit the spinal cord; they project from the spinal cord ventral surface.

Cerebral Cortex The outermost layer of the brain -Controls high-level thinking mental process such as thought What sides of the brain control what sides of the body? Right side of brain –> left side of body Left side of brain …

Cerebrospinal fluid clear body less fluid that protects the brain ventricles where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample dura matter protects spinal …

Nervous System Master Controlling and communicating system of the body, cells communicate via electrical and chemical signals, rapid and specific, usually cause almost immediate responses. Nervous system functions Sensory input, Integration (brain), and motor output WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Axon An elongated extension that carries impulse away from the cell. Axon terminal End of the axon farthest from the cell body which releases nerotransmitter. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

Functions of ANS control of smooth muscles in organs and glands a) viscera (=organs) and blood vessels, cardiac muscles and gland b) visceral reflexes Visceral motor system a) efferent b) every organ and gland has 2 fibers, one type of …

Spinal Cord Functions 1. Carry messages to & from the brain a) Sensory tracts b) Motor tracts 2. Carry out reflexes Sensory tracts Carry sensory info *up to brain* WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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