Surgical Pharmacology

Pharmacology
study of drugs and their actions

Drug
substance used as medicine for the diagnosis treatnment, cure, or prevention ( prophylaxis) of disease or condtion

Liter
(L) measures Volume

Gram
(g) measures mass

Meter
(m) measures length

milli
one thousandth ( 1 milliliter=1/1000 liter)

centi
one hundreth ( 1 centimeter=1/100 meter)

kilo
one thousand ( 1 kilogram=1000 grams)

Cubic Ceentimeter
(cc) used to measure liquid, 1cc=1mL ( ml) milliliter

1 Kilogram
2.2 pounds

1 gram
15 grains

1 ounce
30 grams

1 grain
60 milligrams

1 milliliter
1 gram=1.5 minums=1 cc

cc
Cubic centimeter

kg
kilogram

mL
milliliter

gtt
drop

Fahrenheit to Celsius
subtract 32 and divide by 1.8

Celsius to Fahrenheit
plus 32 multyiply by 1.8

Normal Temp
98.6 F or 37 C

Surgical room Temp
65-75F to discourage growth of bacteria and for comfort of team

plants
atropine, digitalis, morphine

animals
hormones ( insulin, thrombin)

minerals
calcium, magnesium

chemical laboratory
synthetic: synthesized from chemicals ( demerol)
Semi Synthetic: start with natural substance then altered by chemical process ( penicillin)

Genetic Engineering
human growth hormone

Chemical Name
precise description of chemical composition and molecular structure used by chemists

Generic Name
selected by original developer. does not belong to any one company official name

Trade Name
brand name. selected by manufacturer and used to market drug

Therapeutic Action
what they do for patient. anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti coagulent

physiologic action
what they do in body. Muscle relaxant, vasoconstrictor

effected body system
what they affect cardio vascular agent, urinary tract agent

chimcal type
what chemical compound they are. narcotic barbituate oxytocic.

Solid Drugs
capsule/tablet form. administered orally. some are powders that come in vials and need to be reconstitued prior to use.

semisolids
creams, foams, gels, ointments, and suppositiores. neosporin. ointment

Liquids
may be in solution ( fully disolved in liquid) in form of syrups or elixirs or in suspension

Gases
inhalation, anesthetic agents

Enteral
meds given through alimentary tract orally or rectally

PO ( per os) orally
simplest most common way to administer meds, absorption is lsowest not usually used in surgery

Buccal
between cheek and gum ( glucose)

Sublinqual
under tongue ( nytroglycerin

Topically
spread onto the skin. gives local affect only irrigating solutions or ointments

transdermal
patch on skin

inhalation
anesthetics, nebulizer

subcutaneous ( sc)
injectin given beneath skin into the subcutaneous layer. ( upper arm, anterior thigh, abdomen ) insulin

intramuscular
injection given into large muscle mass such as gluteus or deltoid

intravenous
given directly int vein. absorption is immediate

intradermal
given between layers of skin. ( tb test, allergy testing)

intro-articular
injections into joint space. usually anti-inflammatory or local anesthetics ( steroids)

intrathecal
administered into spinal subachnoid space

intracardiac
injected directly into heart

absorption
drug is absorbed from site of administration into blood stream. body system vaires by administration roote

distribution
once a drug has been asborbed into bloodstream it is carried throughout body. circulatory system

metabolism
in the liver, drug is chemically altered via process called metabolism liver

excretion
most drugs are ecreted by kidneys

onset
time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of its effect

peak effect
time between the administration and maximum effectt

duration
time between onset and disappearance of drug effects

agonists
drugs that bind to a receptor then alter a biological function to produce an effect. ( hormone)

antagonist
bind to receptors and inhibit a response by preventing an agonist from binding to the cell

syngergist
drug that enhances the effect of another such as adding epinephrine to a medication

side effect
expected but uninteded affect of a drug

adverse affect
unexpected, undersired, potentially harmful side effects

Drug hypersensitivity
adverse effect resulting from a previous exposure to a drug. may be immediate or delayed

anaphylaxis
severe allergic reaction sweeling, hives, airway, difficulty circulatory collapse

idiosyncratic
rare and unpredictable reactions. ( malingant hyperhtermia )

standing orders
used for a common situation requiring a standard treatment. ( protocol)

verbal orders
MD gives verbal order for med. common in surgery

Stat orders
indicate the drug is to be given immediately and one time only

PRN orders
stands for pro re nata ( given as needed)

vasodilators
used to dilate peripheral blood vessels. Papaverine is one most commonly used

vasoconstrictors
constric blood vessels to raise blood pressure. vasopressin and norepinephrine common ones

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