Surgical Pharmacology

study of drugs and their actions

substance used as medicine for the diagnosis treatnment, cure, or prevention ( prophylaxis) of disease or condtion

(L) measures Volume

(g) measures mass

(m) measures length

one thousandth ( 1 milliliter=1/1000 liter)

one hundreth ( 1 centimeter=1/100 meter)

one thousand ( 1 kilogram=1000 grams)

Cubic Ceentimeter
(cc) used to measure liquid, 1cc=1mL ( ml) milliliter

1 Kilogram
2.2 pounds

1 gram
15 grains

1 ounce
30 grams

1 grain
60 milligrams

1 milliliter
1 gram=1.5 minums=1 cc

Cubic centimeter




Fahrenheit to Celsius
subtract 32 and divide by 1.8

Celsius to Fahrenheit
plus 32 multyiply by 1.8

Normal Temp
98.6 F or 37 C

Surgical room Temp
65-75F to discourage growth of bacteria and for comfort of team

atropine, digitalis, morphine

hormones ( insulin, thrombin)

calcium, magnesium

chemical laboratory
synthetic: synthesized from chemicals ( demerol)
Semi Synthetic: start with natural substance then altered by chemical process ( penicillin)

Genetic Engineering
human growth hormone

Chemical Name
precise description of chemical composition and molecular structure used by chemists

Generic Name
selected by original developer. does not belong to any one company official name

Trade Name
brand name. selected by manufacturer and used to market drug

Therapeutic Action
what they do for patient. anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti coagulent

physiologic action
what they do in body. Muscle relaxant, vasoconstrictor

effected body system
what they affect cardio vascular agent, urinary tract agent

chimcal type
what chemical compound they are. narcotic barbituate oxytocic.

Solid Drugs
capsule/tablet form. administered orally. some are powders that come in vials and need to be reconstitued prior to use.

creams, foams, gels, ointments, and suppositiores. neosporin. ointment

may be in solution ( fully disolved in liquid) in form of syrups or elixirs or in suspension

inhalation, anesthetic agents

meds given through alimentary tract orally or rectally

PO ( per os) orally
simplest most common way to administer meds, absorption is lsowest not usually used in surgery

between cheek and gum ( glucose)

under tongue ( nytroglycerin

spread onto the skin. gives local affect only irrigating solutions or ointments

patch on skin

anesthetics, nebulizer

subcutaneous ( sc)
injectin given beneath skin into the subcutaneous layer. ( upper arm, anterior thigh, abdomen ) insulin

injection given into large muscle mass such as gluteus or deltoid

given directly int vein. absorption is immediate

given between layers of skin. ( tb test, allergy testing)

injections into joint space. usually anti-inflammatory or local anesthetics ( steroids)

administered into spinal subachnoid space

injected directly into heart

drug is absorbed from site of administration into blood stream. body system vaires by administration roote

once a drug has been asborbed into bloodstream it is carried throughout body. circulatory system

in the liver, drug is chemically altered via process called metabolism liver

most drugs are ecreted by kidneys

time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of its effect

peak effect
time between the administration and maximum effectt

time between onset and disappearance of drug effects

drugs that bind to a receptor then alter a biological function to produce an effect. ( hormone)

bind to receptors and inhibit a response by preventing an agonist from binding to the cell

drug that enhances the effect of another such as adding epinephrine to a medication

side effect
expected but uninteded affect of a drug

adverse affect
unexpected, undersired, potentially harmful side effects

Drug hypersensitivity
adverse effect resulting from a previous exposure to a drug. may be immediate or delayed

severe allergic reaction sweeling, hives, airway, difficulty circulatory collapse

rare and unpredictable reactions. ( malingant hyperhtermia )

standing orders
used for a common situation requiring a standard treatment. ( protocol)

verbal orders
MD gives verbal order for med. common in surgery

Stat orders
indicate the drug is to be given immediately and one time only

PRN orders
stands for pro re nata ( given as needed)

used to dilate peripheral blood vessels. Papaverine is one most commonly used

constric blood vessels to raise blood pressure. vasopressin and norepinephrine common ones

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