study guide- Patho musculoskeletal

The inflammation surrounding a fracture site during the first few days may complicate healing by causing:
sever ischemia and tissue necrosis

Immovable joints are called
synarthroses

What is the likely immediate result of fat emboli from a broken femur?
pulmonary inflammation and obstruction

Rickets results from
a deficit of Vitamin D and phosphates

Which of the following describes a Colles’ fracture?
The distal radius is broken

Why does ankylosis and deformity develop in rheumatoid arthritis?
skeletal muscle hypertophies

How is Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy inherited?
an X-linked recessive gene

What is the prognosis for osteoarthritis?
Damage is irreversible and usually progressive.

Bones classified as “irregular” would include
the mandible

What is a typical characteristic of the pain caused by osteoarthritis?
increased with weight-bearing and activity

Which of the following would identify an open or compound fracture?
The skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site.

How does the joint appear during an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis?
red, warm, swollen, and tender to touch

Which of the following is correct about Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy?
There is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2 to 3 years of age.

What is a common effect of long-term use of glucocorticoids to treat rheumatoid arthritis?
osteoporosis

Therapeutic measures for osteoporosis include:
dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D

Which of the following may precipitate an attack of gout?
a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels

Which of the following best describes the typical bone pain caused by osteogenic sarcoma?
steady, severe, and persisting with rest

What is a sign is a dislocation?
deformity at a joint

Which statement applies to menisci?
They prevent excessive movement of joints.

Ewing’s sarcoma metastasizes at an early stage to the
lungs

What structure facilitated joint movement?
articulating cartilage

Which factors delay healing of bone fractures?
2,3 prolonged inflammation and ischemia
presence of osteomyelitis

Where does inflammation usually begin in an individual with ankylosing spondylitis?
sacroiliac joints and progression up the spine

What is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome?
specific trigger points for pain and tenderness

How is the articular cartilage damage in rheumatoid arthritis?
enzymatic destruction by the pannus

During the healing process, the hematoma
is the structure into which granulation tissue grows

Which of the following distinguishes septic arthritis?
purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint

What is the basic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction

What is a common outcome of fibrosis, calcification, and fusion of the spine in ankylosing spondylitis?
rigity, postural changes, and osteoporosis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis differs from the adult from the adult in that
Rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic effects are more severe.

When a fracture is healing, the procallus or fibrocartilaginouscallus
serves as a splint across the fracture site

What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction?
acetycholine

What limits joint movement in osteoarthritis?
the osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface

Systemic effects of rheumatoid arthritis are manifested as
nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue, and anorexia

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is always a primary disorder

Which of the following cells produce new bone?
osteoblast

Paget’s disease often leads to
both a and d

What is the prognosis for osteoarthritis?
Damage is irreversible and usually progressive

Which of the following describes a Colles’ fracture?
The distal radius is broken

All of the following predispose to osteoporosis EXCEPT
weight-bearing activity

Which of the following cells produce new bone? a. osteocytes b. osteoblasts c. osteoclasts d. stem cells from the bone marrow osteoblasts What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction? a. norepinephrine b. GABA c. serotonin d. acetylcholine …

1.What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction? acetylcholine 2. What structure facilitates joint movement? articulating cartilage WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample 3. Which …

As we age we deal with many unpleasant side effects. Some side effects and diseases come with the territory while others are preventable. In this paper we have a closer look at the causes of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and muscular atrophy. …

Fractures a break in a bone What is the pathophysiology of a fracture and healing? bleeding–> clot/ hematoma around fracture site–> surrounding tissue becomes necrotic (necrosis)–> inflammation–> dilation of blood vessels and exudate–> increased osteoblast activity (callous)–> new bone–> remodeling …

Neoplasms ?? Lipoma What is a benign neoplasm originating from adipose tissue called? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Sarcomas What are malignant neoplasms arising from connective …

Osteoporosis – bone deterioration due to decreased bone density – Lack of dietary calcium and vitamin D*** – Disrupted bone homeostasis – increased fractures – decreased height in elderly*** Osteomalacia softening of bone (called rickets in children) WE WILL WRITE …

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