Structural Kinesiology chapter 4

What are the 5 muscles of the shoulder girdle?
Trapezius, Levator scapulae, Rhomboid muscles, Serratus anterior, and Pectoralis minor

What are the 5 muscles of the shoulder girdle essential for?
Dynamic stability of the scapula

Trapezius origin and insertion
O: occipital bone; posterior cervical ligaments; spinous processes of C-7 through T-12 I: upper=lateral 1/3 of clavicle, middle= acromion, lower= spine of scapula

What stabilizing function does the Trapezius have?
fixates scapula for deltoid to act on humerus

In what functional activities does Trapezius act as a stabilizer?
overhead lifting, lifting a wheel-barrow

Levator scapulae origin and insertion
O: transverse processes of C-1 through C-4 I: medial boarder of scapula from superior angle o scapular spine

Rhomboid muscle group origin and insertion
O: spinous processes of C-7 through T-5 I: medial boarder of scapula

What is a functional purpose of the Rhomboid muscle group?
fix scapula in retraction when the shoulder joint muscles adduct and extend the arm

In what functional activities do the rhomboid muscles act to stabilize?
pulling, adducting shoulder, extension, high EMG levels during acceleration and follow-through phases of throwing (eccentric contraction)

How can you stretch the upper fibers of Trapezius?
cervical flexion and opposite lateral flexion while depressing scapula

How can you strengthen the upper fibers of Trapezius?
shrugs with weights

How can you stretch the middle fibers of Trapezius and the Rhomboid group?
protract with scapular depression

How can you strengthen the middle fibers of Trapezius and the Rhomboid group?
seated row, bent over row, band stretches (pulling apart)

How can you strengthen just the Rhomboid group?
pull-ups, chin-ups, dips

How can you stretch the lower fibers of Trapezius?
lay down and stretch arm out and over, however this muscle is normally weak not tight so this may not be necessary

How can you strengthen the lower fibers of Trapezius?
low rows, arms up in a V shape, dips, band exercises ( – / )

How can you stretch the Levator scapulae?
cervical flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation to opposite side while maintaining scapula in depressed position

How can you strengthen the Levator scapulae?
shrugs with weights (like upper Traps)

What muscles are part of the force-couple that produces downward rotation?
Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid group, and Pectoralis minor

What muscles are part of the force-couple that produces upward rotation?
upper fibers of Trapezius, lower fibers of Trapezius, and Serratus anterior

Name a muscle of the shoulder girdle which attaches on the coracoid process.
Pectoralis minor

What do you notice about the depth of the Glenoid fossa (cavity)?
it is very shallow

What structures are superior and inferior to the glenoid fossa, and what do they provide for the shoulder and elbow?
supraglenoid and infraglenoid tubercles; provide muscle attachments

Name one shoulder girdle muscle which attaches at the superior angle of the scapula?
Levator scapulae

Name one shoulder girdle muscle which attaches on the medial boarder of the scapula
Rhomboid or Serratus anterior

What are the primary functions of the scapula?
protection and movement

What are the two angles and three boarders of the scapula?
superior and inferior; superior, medial, and lateral

To what bones do the two ends of the clavicle attach?
sternum and acromion

How do the shapes of the medial and later ends of the clavicle differ?
medial is thicken, convex anteriorly 2/3; lateral is flatter, concave anteriorly 1/3

What are the functions of the clavicle?
protection, connects axial and appendicular skeletons, site for muscle attachment, and movement

What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint? What are the articulating bones of the joint?
plane (gliding) synovial joint (3 degrees of freedom); manubrium of sternum and medial end of clavicle

Which ligaments provide support to the sternoclavicular joint?
anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, costoclavicular ligament (clavicle and first rib), and interclavicular ligament

What movements are possible at the sternoclavicular joint?
elevation and depression, protraction and retraction (anterior and posterior), and upward (posterior) and downward (anterior) rotation

Why would you expect that fractures of the clavicle are more common than dislocations locations of the sternoclavicular joint?
joint is very congruent, stable, binding ligaments, shape of clavicle and how it can handle pressure

What type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint? What are the articulating bones?
plane (gliding) joint (3 degrees of freedom); acromion and clavicle

Which ligaments provide support to the acromioclavicular joint? Which ligament is most critical for support?
Acromioclavicular ligaments (reinforce capsule), coracoacromial ligament, coracoclavicular ligaments (conoid [medial] and trapezoid [lateral]); coracoclavicular

What movements are possible at the acromioclavicular joint?
translation (superior/inferior, anterior/posterior) and rotation

Why do you expect that the acromioclavicular joint is very susceptible to both trauma and degenerative changes?
constant tension, lack of congruency, more anterior ligaments (not as much overall support)

Which surfaces form the scapulothoracic “articulation”?
subscapular fossa (and muscles) and muscles of the posterior chest wall

What is the primary role of the scapulothoracic articulation?
amplify movement of glenohumeral joint

What is the resting position of the scapula?
oblique; 30-45 degrees anterior from frontal plane

Motions of the scapulothoracic articulation are totally dependent upon motion at the ____ and ____ joints.
sternoclavicular; acromioclavicular

Identify the motions of scapulothoracic articulation.
elevation and depression, protraction (abduction) and retraction (adduction) , upward rotation and downward rotation

To determine whether the scapula is in upward or downward rotation, what structure should you watch?
Glenoid fossa, not inferior angle

Name a muscle which acts to retract the scapula.
Rhomboid

Name a muscle which acts to elevate the scapula.
Levator scapulae or trapezius

Serratus anterior origin and insertion
O: external surfaces of ribs 1-9 I: medial boarder and inferior angle of the scapula (anterior aspect)

Serratus anterior has a critical function as a scapular stabilizer during functional movements. It stabilizes the ___ boarder and the ___ angle of the scapula against the thoracic cage.
medial; inferior

What are the functional motions in which serratus anterior is active?
basketball shooting and guarding, punching (in boxing), throwing a baseball

What sign is visible when someone has a weak serratus anterior?
scapular winging

Pectoralis minor origin and insertion
O: anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5 I: coracoid process of scapula

If Pectoralis minor was isolated, which way would the scapula tilt?
anteriorly

Serratus anterior and pectoralis minor work together to perform the function action of ____.
pusing on something

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that protract (or ___) the scapula?
abduct; Serratus anterior and pectoralis minor (when not isolated)

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that retract (or ___) the scapula?
adduct; Rhomboid group and middle fibers of trapezius

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that elevate the scapula?
upper fibers of trapezius, Levator scapulae, Rhomboid group

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that depress the scapula?
lower fibers of trapezius and pectoralis minor (when not isolated)

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that upwardly rotate the scapula?
upper and lower fibers of trapezius, Serratus anterior

What are all of the shoulder girdle muscles that downwardly rotate the scapula?
Levator scapulae, Rhomboid group, pectoralis minor (when not isolated)

Which scapular muscles tend to become tight with poor posture?
upper trapezius and Levator scapulae

Which scapular muscles tend to become weak with poor posture?
Rhomboid group, Serratus anterior, middle Trapezius

What can scapular muscle imbalance contribute to?
Thoracic kyphosis and forward head posture. This is a less functional position for shoulder movement

How can you stretch the serratus anterior?
“touchdown” in a doorway and lean into it

How can you strengthen the serratus anterior?
push up with a plus, bench press, overhead press, weighted punches, dynamic hug

How can you stretch the pectoralis minor?
push shoulder against wall, fist on ribs, shoulder up and back; with athlete laying supine, passively push down the shoulder; “touchdown” in a doorway and lean into it

How can you strengthen the pectoralis minor?
dips, chair sits, push up with a plus, bench press, overhead press, weighted punches, dynamic hug

When doing a prone row, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the pull-up (retraction) phase?
middle trapezius and rhomboid group; concentric contraction

When doing a prone row, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the lowering (protraction) phase?
middle trapezius and Rhomboid group; eccentric contraction

When doing barbell shrugs, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the pull-up (elevation) phase?
upper trapezius, Levator scapulae, and Rhomboid group; concentric contraction

When doing barbell shrugs, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during return to starting position (depression)?
upper Trapezius, Levator scapulae, and Rhomboid group; eccentric contraction

When doing lat pulls, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the pull-down phase to below the chin position (retraction, downward rotation, and depression)?
Rhomboid group, middle and lower trapezius, and pectoralis minor; concentric contraction

When doing lat pulls, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during return to starting position (protraction, upward rotation, and elevation)?
Rhomboid group, middle and lower trapezius, and pectoralis minor; eccentric contraction

When doing lateral raises, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the lifting (upward rotation) phase?
upper and lower trapezius and serratus anterior; concentric contraction

When doing lateral raises, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the lowering (downward rotation) phase?
upper and lower trapezius and serratus anterior; eccentric contraction

When doing body dips, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the pushing up (downward rotation and depression) phase?
Rhomboid group, pectoralis minor, and lower trapezius; concentric contraction

When doing body dips, what are the agonists and how are they contracting during the lowering (upward rotation and elevation) phase?
Rhomboid group, pectoralis minor, and lower trapezius; eccentric contraction

False The origin of the rhomboid muscles is the spinous processes of the last cervical (C-7) and the first seven thoracic vertebrae (T1-5) (true or false) trapezius Which of the following muscles is located most posteriorly on the human body? …

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Upper extremity muscles include muscles that connect the scapula to the thorax and support its motion, muscles that connect the humerus to the scapula and allow motion of the arm, and muscles situated in the arm or forearm that allow …

What 3 bones makes the shoulder girdle? Humerus, scapula, and clavicle What are the 3 joints in the shoulder girdle? Shoulder, AC, and SC WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

the apendicular skeleton Pectoral girdle • attaches the upper limbs to the trunk Pelvic girdle • attaches the lower limbs to the trunk Upper and lower limbs • differ in function • similar structural plan the pectoral girdle • Clavicle …

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