One reason the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was successful was that this organization
(1) focused on the needs of skilled workers
(2) rejected the use of strikes and boycotts
(3) ended the use of blacklists by employers
(4) called for government ownership of industry
(1) focused on the needs of skilled workers

27 The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s most enhanced American culture by
(1) pressuring southern states to extend voting rights
(2) expanding African American access to education
(3) popularizing African American contributions to the arts
(4) convincing the Supreme Court to allow affirmative action
(3) popularizing African American contributions to the arts

8 The repeal of national Prohibition in 1933 showed that
(1) alcohol consumption was not socially acceptable
(2) the government should lower the drinking age
(3) crime rates had fallen to record low levels
(4) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce
(4) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce

27 Which development most clearly illustrates the nativist attitudes that existed in the United States in the 1920s?
(1) limits on immigration established by the Quota Acts
(2) pro-business policies of the federal government
(3) artistic and literary achievements of the Harlem Renaissance
(4) conflicts between religion and science as shown in the Scopes Trial
(3) artistic and literary achievements of the Harlem Renaissance

28 Which movement’s primary goal was the ratification of a constitutional amendment authorizing Prohibition?
(1) abolitionist
(2) Populist
(3) temperance
(4) settlement house
(3) temperance

National attention was drawn to the Scopes trial of 1925 because the case
(1) represented a conflict between science and religion
(2) reversed a previous Supreme Court decision on free speech
(3) upheld the right of veterans to protest in Washington, D. C.
(4) revealed the extent of prejudice against immigrants
(1) represented a conflict between science and religion

Which American author was part of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s?
(1) F. Scott Fitzgerald
(2) Ernest Hemingway
(3) Langston Hughes
(4) John Steinbeck
(3) Langston Hughes

The economic boom of the 1920s was fueled in part by
(1) government subsidies paid to farmers
(2) tariff reductions on European goods
(3) increased investment in the stock market
(4) construction by the Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA)
(3) increased investment in the stock market

WhatwasamajorcauseoftheGreatDepression?
(1) overproduction and underconsumption
(2) a decrease in the supply of consumer goods
(3) an increase in demand for imported products
(4) an increase in the price of wheat on the world market
(1) overproduction and underconsumption

The New Deal changed American political thinking because it was based on the principle that the
(1) economy will fix itself if left alone
(2) federal government should attempt to solve social and economic problems
(3) political parties must work together to deal with national problems
(4) states should take a leadership position in solving social issues
(2) federal government should attempt to solve social and economic problems

25 The conflict between science and religion in the 1920s was most clearly shown in the
(1) trial of John Scopes
(2) arrest of Sacco and Vanzetti
(3) nativist reactions to immigration
(4) poetry of the Harlem Renaissance
(1) trial of John Scopes

26 One of the major causes of the stock market crash of 1929 was
(1) excessive buying of stocks on margin
(2) overconsumption of goods and services
(3) failure of international banking systems
(4) low prices of stocks and bonds
(1) excessive buying of stocks on margin

27 Which action did President Franklin D. Roosevelt take that helped organized labor gain strength during the New Deal?
(1) requiring the American Federation of Labor to admit skilled workers
(2) allowing women to work in government agencies
(3) signing the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
(4) selecting John L. Lewis as his Secretary of Labor
(3) signing the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

27 What was the major problem facing American farmers during the 1920s?
(1) shortage of fertile land
(2) overproduction of crops
(3) low prices of imported farm products
(4) limited labor supply
(2) overproduction of crops

28 The contributions of Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington illustrate the importance of the Harlem Renaissance to
(1) economic growth
(2) educational reform
(3) the creative arts
(4) political leadership
(3) the creative arts

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) were both New Deal programs developed to address the problem of
(1) excessive stock market speculation
(2) high unemployment
(3) increased use of credit
(4) limited income of senior citizens
(2) high unemployment

A major reason that President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed adding Justices to the Supreme Court in 1937 was to
(1) make the Court processes more democratic
(2) end corruption and favoritism in handling cases
(3) influence Court decisions related to New Deal programs
(4) ensure the appointment of members of
minority groups
(3) influence Court decisions related to New Deal programs

23 The “clear and present danger” doctrine established in Schenck v. United States (1919) concerned the issue of
(1) freedom of speech
(2) the right to bear arms
(3) the right to an attorney
(4) separation of church and state
(1) freedom of speech

24 Why did many United States farmers fail to benefit from the economic prosperity of the 1920s?
(1) No technological advances were made in agriculture.
(2) Levels of farm production declined.
(3) Farm exports were heavily taxed.
(4) Agricultural goods were overproduced.
(4) Agricultural goods were overproduced.

25 The Scopes trial of the 1920s dealt with a conflict between
(1) communism and capitalism
(2) Protestants and Catholics
(3) science and religion
(4) labor and management
(3) science and religion

26 Which economic factor contributed most directly to the start of the Great Depression?
(1) low worker productivity
(2) high income taxes
(3) decreasing tariff rates
(4) buying stocks on margin
(4) buying stocks on margin

28 What was a guiding principle of the New Deal economic policies?
(1) Pro-business tax breaks would solve the problems associated with urban poverty.
(2) Antitrust legislation would destroy the free market economy of the United States.
(3) Rugged individualism must be allowed to solve social inequality.
(4) Government must assume more responsi- bility for helping the poor.
(4) Government must assume more responsi- bility for helping the poor.

26 Henry Ford’s use of the assembly line in the production of automobiles led directly to
(1) a decrease in the number of automobiles available
(2) a decrease in the cost of automobiles
(3) an increase in the unemployment rate
(4) an increase in the time needed to produce a single automobile
(2) a decrease in the cost of automobiles

27 The convictions of Sacco and Vanzetti in the 1920s most closely reflected the
(1) increase in nativist attitudes
(2) federal government’s war on crime
(3) corruption of political machines
(4) rise in labor unrest
(1) increase in nativist attitudes

28 What was one cause of the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression that followed?
(1) Costs associated with World War I had bankrupted the economy.
(2) Speculators had purchased shares of stock on margin with borrowed funds.
(3) Federal tax cuts had caused high inflation.
(4) Low farm production had weakened banks.
(2) Speculators had purchased shares of stock on margin with borrowed funds.

29 DuringtheGreatDepression,onewayNewDeal programs tried to stimulate economic recovery was by
(1) raising tariff rates
(2) increasing interest rates
(3) creating public works jobs
(4) lowering the minimum wage
(3) creating public works jobs

31 Which geographic area is most closely associated with the Dust Bowl of the 1930s?
(1) Great Lakes basin
(2) Mississippi River valley
(3) Appalachian Mountains
(4) Great Plains
(4) Great Plains

27 National Prohibition, as authorized by the 18th amendment, stated that
(1) Americans must be 18 years old to purchase alcoholic beverages
(2) only imported alcoholic beverages would be sold
(3) alcoholic beverages could be sold only in government-run stores
(4) the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was banned
(4) the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was banned

28 During the 1920s, Congress passed a series of immigration laws that were primarily designed to
(1) increase immigration from Asia
(2) expand the workforce for the growing
economy
(3) limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe
(4) prohibit immigration from Latin America
(3) limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe

29 During the second half of the 1920s, which economic trend was a major cause of the Great Depression?
(1) deficits in the federal budget
(2) reductions in tariff rates
(3) creation of national and state sales taxes
(4) overproduction and underconsumption
(4) overproduction and underconsumption

30 President Herbert Hoover’s response to the Great Depression was often criticized because it
(1) wasted money on new social programs
(2) caused widespread rioting and looting in
major cities
(3) raised taxes on businesses and the wealthy
(4) failed to provide direct relief for the neediest persons
(4) failed to provide direct relief for the neediest persons

31 A major reason for creating the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933 was to
(1) build and manage a turnpike in the valley
(2) provide health care benefits for southerners
(3) encourage African Americans to settle in the valley
(4) improve economic conditions in a poor rural region
(4) improve economic conditions in a poor rural region

The Harlem Renaissance promoted African American culture by
(1) increasing factory employment opportunities for minorities
(2) encouraging immigration from Africa
(3) focusing attention on artistic contributions
(4) bringing an end to legalized racial segregation
(3) focusing attention on artistic contributions

29 During the 1920s, the United States changed its immigration policy by passing new laws that
(1) provided incentives to attract more immigrants to factory jobs
(2) encouraged Chinese immigrants to enter the country
(3) allowed unrestricted immigration of war refugees from Vietnam
(4) established quotas that reduced the number of immigrants from certain countries
(4) established quotas that reduced the number of immigrants from certain countries

30 President Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that declaring a bank holiday and creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) would help the nation’s banking system by
(1) restoring public confidence in the banks
(2) reducing government regulation of banks
(3) restricting foreign investments
(4) granting tax relief to individuals
(1) restoring public confidence in the banks

25 What was a main result of national Prohibition during the 1920s?
(1) Respect for the law decreased.
(2) Woman’s suffrage was restricted.
(3) Racial prejudice increased.
(4) Religious tolerance grew.
(1) Respect for the law decreased.

26 Which foreign policy did Warren G. Harding support when he used the phrase “return to normalcy” during his presidential campaign of 1920?
(1) appeasement
(2) internationalism
(3) containment
(4) isolationism
(4) isolationism

27 Which event led to the start of the Great Depression?
(1) Red Scare (1919-1920)
(2) election of President Herbert Hoover (1928)
(3) stock market crash (1929)
(4) passage of the Emergency Banking Act
(1933)
(3) stock market crash (1929)

27 The Scopes trial of 1925 illustrated the
(1) desire for new voting rights laws
(2) need for better private schools
(3) conflict between Protestant fundamentalism and science
(4) effects of the Red Scare on the legal system
(3) conflict between Protestant fundamentalism and science

28 What was a major cause of the Great Depression?
(1) decrease in the production of goods during most of the 1920s
(2) unequal distribution of wealth in the United States
(3) overregulation of the banking industry (4) low tariffs on foreign goods
(2) unequal distribution of wealth in the United States

29 The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) affected workers by
(1) protecting their right to form unions and bargain collectively
(2) preventing public employee unions from going on strike
(3) providing federal pensions for retired workers (4) forbidding racial discrimination in employment
(1) protecting their right to form unions and bargain collectively

29 OnemajorwayPresidentFranklinD.Roosevelt’s New Deal tried to combat the effects of the Great Depression was by
(1) keeping workers’ wages low
(2) increasing protective tariff rates
(3) giving states more control over the federal budget
(4) funding public works relief programs
(4) funding public works relief programs

30 In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was criticized for his proposal to add justices to the United States Supreme Court because these appointments would have
(1) broken earlier campaign promises
(2) violated the constitutional limit on the
number of justices
(3) threatened the system of checks and balances
(4) established a more conservative Court
(3) threatened the system of checks and balances

33 Congress opposed President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s plan to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court because the plan would have
(1) threatened the principle of checks and balances
(2) abolished judicial review
(3) violated the elastic clause of the Constitution
(4) given the federal government too much
power over the states
(1) threatened the principle of checks and balances

28 Which characteristic of the 1920s is illustrated by the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti?
(1) hostility toward woman’s suffrage
(2) support for segregation
(3) opposition to separation of church and state
(4) intolerance toward immigrants
(4) intolerance toward immigrants

31 The national policy of Prohibition ended when the states
(1) strengthened food and drug laws
(2) legalized alcohol for medical purposes
(3) ratified the 21st amendment
(4) banned interstate shipment of alcoholic
beverages
(3) ratified the 21st amendment

One result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was that it
(1) raised the national debt
(2) weakened labor unions
(3) deregulated the stock market
(4) repealed federal antitrust laws
(1) raised the national debt

31 During the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, African American authors and artists used literature and art to
(1) end segregation of public facilities
(2) promote affirmative action programs
(3) celebrate the richness of their heritage
(4) urge voters to elect more African Americans to political office
(3) celebrate the richness of their heritage

2 Which economic condition was a major cause of the Great Depression?
(1) high wages of industrial workers
(2) deficit spending by the federal government
(3) inability of industry to produce enough
consumer goods
(4) uneven distribution of income between the rich and the poor
(4) uneven distribution of income between the rich and the poor

33 The march of the “Bonus Army” and referring to shantytowns as “Hoovervilles” in the early 1930s illustrate
(1) growing discontent with Republican efforts to deal with the Great Depression
(2) state projects that created jobs for the unemployed
(3) federal attempts to restore confidence in the American economy
(4) the president’s success in solving social problems
(1) growing discontent with Republican efforts to deal with the Great Depression

35 Critics of the New Deal claimed that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and the Social Security System threatened the United States economy by
(1) applying socialist principles
(2) imposing unfair working hours
(3) decreasing government spending
(4) eroding antitrust laws
(1) applying socialist principles

30 The changing image of women during the 1920s was symbolized by the
(1) passage of an equal pay act
(2) drafting of women into the army
(3) popularity of the flappers and their style of dress
(4) appointment of several women to President Calvin Coolidge’s cabinet
(3) popularity of the flappers and their style of dress

32 The economic prosperity of the 1920s was mainly the result of the
(1) adoption of lower tariff rates
(2) stricter enforcement of antitrust laws
(3) success of most United States farmers
(4) development of new industries for consumer goods
(4) development of new industries for consumer goods

33 The Harlem Renaissance was important to American society because it
(1) highlighted the cultural achievements of African Americans
(2) isolated African Americans from mainstream society
(3) provided new political opportunities for African Americans
(4) brought an end to racial segregation in the North
(1) highlighted the cultural achievements of African Americans

34 The New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt changed the United States economy by
(1) restoring the principle of a balanced budget
(2) expanding the trustbusting practices of
Progressive Era presidents
(3) encouraging greater production of agricultural goods
(4) increasing government involvement with both business and labor
(4) increasing government involvement with both business and labor

25 What were two basic causes of the Dust Bowl during the early 1930s?
(1) strip mining and toxic waste dumping
(2) overfarming and severe drought
(3) clear-cutting of forests and construction of railroads
(4) overpopulation and urban sprawl
(2) overfarming and severe drought

27 During President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) were created as a way to
(1) provide jobs to those who were unemployed
(2) raise revenue for relief and recovery
programs
(3) limit risks associated with savings and investments
(4) implement the new income tax amendment
(3) limit risks associated with savings and investments

25 The Red Scare, the National Origins Acts of the 1920s, and the verdict in the Sacco and Vanzetti trial are examples of negative American attitudes toward
(1) immigrants
(2) business leaders
(3) African Americans
(4) labor union leaders
(1) immigrants

26 Improved mass-production techniques affected the American economy of the 1920s by
(1) reducing prices of consumer goods
(2) lowering the quality of most products
(3) causing higher unemployment
(4) decreasing the quantity of manufactured
products
(1) reducing prices of consumer goods

29 Which statement about Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program is most accurate?
(1) Protective tariff rates increased.
(2) Social welfare programs were expanded.
(3) Government regulation of business was reduced.
(4) Government support of environmental conservation ended.
(2) Social welfare programs were expanded.

27 The influence of nativism during the 1920s is best illustrated by the
(1) increase in the popularity of the automobile
(2) emergence of the flappers
(3) expansion of trusts and monopolies
(4) growth of the Ku Klux Klan
(4) growth of the Ku Klux Klan

29 The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), established during the New Deal, were important because they
(1) increased the supply of money in the economy
(2) guaranteed loans to failing businesses and banks
(3) attempted to restore public confidence in financial institutions
(4) provided grants to unemployed workers
(3) attempted to restore public confidence in financial institutions

28 Much of the domestic legislation of the New Deal period was based on the idea that the federal government should
(1) favor big business over labor and farming
(2) assume some responsibility for the welfare of people
(3) own and operate the major industries of the country
(4) require local communities to be responsible for social welfare programs
(2) assume some responsibility for the welfare of
people

24 Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington are noted for their contributions to the cultural movement of the 1920s known as the
(1) Gospel of Wealth
(2) Lost Generation
(3) Harlem Renaissance
(4) Gilded Age
(3) Harlem Renaissance

26 The failure of national Prohibition led to a public awareness that
(1) crime rates decline when the sale of alcoholic beverages is banned
(2) economic prosperity encourages social conformity
(3) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce
(4) geographic conditions affect law enforcement
(3) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce

27 A lasting effect of the New Deal has been a belief that government should
(1) own the principal means of producing goods and services
(2) allow natural market forces to determine economic conditions
(3) maintain a balanced federal budget during hard economic times
(4) assume responsibility for the well-being of its citizens
(4) assume responsibility for the well-being of its citizens

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