Squamous cell carcinoma

What is throat Cancer? (cancer of the larynx, or laryngeal carcinoma) is a malignant tumor of the throat (voice box). The throat cancer occurs in many cases in people who smoke. Cigarette and pipe smoke, as well as heavy drinking are all the important risk factors for the throat cancer. Therefore, men are predominantly affected. The patients with throat cancer are often between 50 and 70 years old (64~66-year-old is the peak age).

1- People also use the term “throat cancer” to describe cancers of larynx (voice box) and pharynx (laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx e. g.tonsil), and the beginning of esophagus. 2- Even, some people believe that thyroid cancer and oral cancer can also be included in the range of throat cancer. Or: Cancer that forms in tissues of the pharynx (the hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the windpipe and esophagus).

Throat cancer includes cancer of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose), the oropharynx (the middle part of the pharynx), and the hypopharynx (the bottom part of the pharynx). Cancer of the larynx (voice box) may also be included as a type of throat cancer. Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells that look like fish scales). Also called pharyngeal cancer Throat cancer can originate in the oesophagus (gullet), larynx (voice box), thyroid gland or squamous cells lining the pharynx (throat).

Symptoms in early stage Later, the patients also have a difficulty swallowing, and usually a frequent desire to clear his throat. Hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, or both simultaneously, that last longer without or with treatment over four weeks, should be suspected as “throat cancer symptoms” and must always be investigated by an ENT specialist. With the development of throat cancer symptoms, the throat cancer causes a throat pain especially when swallowing. The pain sometimes also may radiate to the ear and head.

Severe throat pain can hinder eating and swallowing. Cough can also be common “throat cancer symptoms”: Due to the foreign body or throat cancer stimulation, the patients usually have a dry, irritating cough.

If the throat cancer becomes ulcerated and bleeding, therefore, the cough will be accompanied by blood stained sputum or purulent bloody sputum with smelly odor. A forced cough to clear the throat and a foreign body sensation may also be the evidence of a throat cancer. Estimated new cases and deaths from throat cancer (including cancers of the larynx) in the United States in 2014: • New cases: 12,630 (laryngeal); 14,410 (pharyngeal) • Deaths: 3,610 (laryngeal); 2,540 (pharyngeal) Treatmeant options: People with early laryngeal cancer may be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. People with advanced laryngeal cancer may have a combination of treatments.

For example, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often given at the same time. Targeted therapy is another option for some people with advanced laryngeal cancer. The choice of treatment depends mainly on your general health, where in your larynx the cancer began, and whether the cancer has spread. Surgery for early-stage throat cancer Surgery to remove all or part of the voice box (laryngectomy). Surgery to remove all or part of the throat (pharyngectomy). Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection Facts: The larynx is an organ in your throat. It’s at the front of your neck.

This organ is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) wide, which is about the size of a lime. The larynx is also called the voice box. It has two bands of muscle that form the vocal cords. The cartilage at the front of the larynx is sometimes called the Adam’s apple. The larynx has three main parts: •Top: The top part of the larynx is the supraglottis. •Middle: The middle part is the glottis. Your vocal cords are in this part. •Bottom: The bottom part is the subglottis. It connects to the windpipe (trachea). Your larynx opens or closes to allow you to breathe, talk, or swallow:

•Breathing: When you hold your breath, your vocal cords shut tightly. When you let out your breath or breathe in, your vocal cords relax and open. •Talking: Your larynx makes the sound of your voice. When you talk, your vocal cords tighten and move closer together. Air from your lungs is forced between the cords and makes them vibrate. The vibration makes the sound. Your tongue, lips, and teeth form this sound into words. •Swallowing: Your larynx protects your lungs from food and liquid.

When you swallow, a flap called the epiglottis covers the opening of your larynx to keep food and liquid out of your lungs. The picture below shows how food or liquid passes through the esophagus on its way from the mouth to the stomach. DIAGNOSIS Using a scope to get a closer look at your throat Removing a tissue sample for testing Imaging tests Throat cancer is diagnosed using a number of tests including: • Medical history • Physical examination, which may include using a mirror to examine the larynx (laryngoscopy).

• Video-stroboscopy – a specialist test, where a small tube with a camera at the tip is passed through the nose and down the throat to view the larynx and record vocal cord movements onto videotape • Biopsy – a sample of suspect tissue is removed for examination in a laboratory • X-rays • Ultrasound • CT scan • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan • PET (position emission tomography) scan • Blood tests • Thyroid scan – a special x-ray of the thyroid following an injection of radioactive CAUSES:

Throat cancer occurs when cells in your throat develop genetic mutations. These mutations cause cells to grow uncontrollably and continue living after healthy cells would normally die. The accumulating cells can form a tumor in your throat.

It’s not clear what causes the mutation that causes throat cancer. But doctors have identified factors that may increase your risk. PREVENTION: There is no way to fully prevent this cancer but ways to help reduce risk is: Stop smoking or don’t start smoking Drink alcohol only in moderation, if at all Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables Protect yourself from HPV SCREENING: Screening for mouth and throat cancer and for abnormal changes that may become cancer is quick and easy, and can save your life. Screening by a dentist and self-screening should be performed regularly because mouth and throat cancer is often painless at an early stage when it is also most treatable.

A mouth and throat cancer examination is painless and only takes a few minutes. During the exam, a dentist can detect certain irregularities inside of your mouth (such as a white or red spot, or a bump or sore) and treat them, if necessary, before they become cancer. In addition, if mouth and throat cancer is detected early (when it’s small and hasn’t spread), you have a better chance of continuing to live a full, normal life.

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Each year, smoking kills more people than AIDS, alcohol, drug abuse, car accidents, murder, suicide, and fires—combined! The use of tobacco increases the risk of contracting throat cancer. Throat cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers within the United …

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