Gender issues are a rare occasion in athletics. The issue arose a number of times in the Olympic Games where it was alleged that male athletes attempted to compete as women in order to win. The first mandatory sex test issued by the IAAF for woman athletes was in July 1950 in the month before the European Championships in Belgium. All athletes were tested in their own countries. Sex testing at the games began at the 1966 European Athletics Championships in response to suspicion that several of the best women athletes from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe were actually men.
At the Olympics, testing was introduced at the 1968 Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble. While it arose primarily from the Olympic Games, gender verification affects any sporting event. However, it most often becomes an issue in elite international competition. The most famous example is Caster Semenya, a South African middle-distance runner and world champion. Semenya won gold in the women’s 800 metres at the 2009 World Championships with a time of 1:55. 45 in the final.
She was scrutinized because of her masculine appearance and it raised concerns and complaints to the International Association of Athletics Federations, the governing body for all international athletic competitions outside the Olympics. She was banned from competing as gender tests where carried out on her. It took until July 2010 for the IAAF cleared her to compete. The main issue is gender inequality in sport. In the past, and still to an extent today, many women have been stereotyped into domestic roles, leaving fewer opportunities or activites available for them to participate in as sports where viewed to be male dominant.
It wasn’t until the 1980’s a more enlightened and equal approach began to emerge which allowed womans sports to blossom in the UK. For the first time in the 2012 London Olympic Games, every country that was competeing had women in their teams. Women this year made up approximately 45% of the atheltes whereas in 1948 in Los Angeles only 24% of those competing were women. Only 16 years ago, in Atlanta, 26 countries did not send any women at all, according to website Muslim Women in Sport. Lord Coe, the London 2012 chairman, said: “We’ve had more women competing in these Games.
Some of the big, high-profile moments have focused on women. It’s really moved the agenda on. ” But Jowell said the ongoing gender imbalance was “symptomatic of wider discrimination against women in sport”. Sport England has an aim to get more women back into sport. Sport England’s most recent figures, published last month, showed that one in eight women play sport in regularly England compared with one in five men. Among disadvantaged communities, the number of women drops to one in 10. They will invest ?
10 million into 20 projects to reduce the gender gap. Racism: Racism in sport is a problem which is manifest around the world. It has led to a wide range of controversial incidents which have been reported in the media. The sport itself does not induce racism. The people that participate in the playing, organization, and implementation of sports bring racism into sports. One of the most notorious examples of racism in an international sporting event occurred in the 1936 Olympics, which were held in Berlin, Germany, in the Nazi era.
German Chancellor Adolf Hitler hoped that the Olympic events would display the superiority of the Aryan race—that is, he hoped that the white athletes would greatly surpass athletes of other racial or ethnic backgrounds. When black American track and field athlete Jesse Owens (1913–1980) won four gold medals, a stunned Hitler angrily left the stadium. German fans, however, received Owens well and cheered his accomplishments. Though in more recent events Greek champion triple jumper Voula Papachristou has became the first athlete banned from competing at the London 2012 Olympic Games for posting racist and offensive comments on Twitter.
Papachristou a supporter of the far-right political party Golden Dawn, posted the offensive tweet, which she now claims was a joke. The tweet said: “With so many Africans in Greece, at least the West Nile mosquitoes will eat home made food!!! ” This was to be her first Olympics where she was to be recognised for her triple jumping but instead she was recognised for all the wrong reasons. Another example of racism in athletics was the Australian athlete John Steffensen. He claims he was racially abused by Athletics Austrailia by not being selected for thr 4X400m relay event in the London Olympic Games.
He commented in a Channel 9 interview saying, “I’ve put up with being racially vilified by this federation, being discriminated against on many teams,” he said of AA’s decision to name the 19-year-old Solomon ahead of him for the one-lap race. ” “…You think I waste my time running at training for fun? For this? ” “No, they can have athletics. I don’t need to do this no more. ” “I don’t think it helps the legitimacy of our sport or the selection criteria, and I think it only makes our sport look stupid.
Athletics Austraila chief Dallas O’Brien says John Steffensen’s claims of racism are “regrettable” but no disciplinary action will be taken against the 400m runner. Education and sport in schools: Physical education and sport in schools has become a key issue involved in education. Targets have been set for schools to create more time for sports. It is said that in primary schools pupils should have 75-90 minutes of physical education and in secondary school; the amount of time and range of activities can become mnore flexible.
They must aim though for minimum of two hours of sport per week. According to the British government: Every secondary school will receive funding up to the end of the academic year in 2013 to pay for one day a week of a PE teacher’s time to be spent out of the classroom, encouraging greater take-up of competitive sport in primary schools and securing a fixture network for schools to increase the amount of intra- and inter-school competition. Lottery funding from Sport England will also be deployed to build a framework of competitions as part of the new School Games.
Though in recent surveys, doctors found 17 per cent of boys and 16 per cent of girls between 12 and 15 are classed as either overweight or obese and nearly three quarters of children are not getting their recommended 60 minutes of daily activity. But with the recent London Olympics the number of children regularly taking part in competitive sport has gone up, a new government report shows, but it’s still less than half of all pupils – increasing from 28% last year to 39% this year.
This shows major events have had an impact on younger children but as it states there is still not enough young peole taking part and there is a many of excuses for avoiding it. Even when people leave school at the age of 18 involvement in sport drops dramatically as they have no longer sport as a complusory part of their acedemic cirriculum. The British government along with Sport England have launched their campaign ‘Sport; a habit for life’ this will focus mainly on the youth, facilities and physical education in schools all over the UK with the aim of increasing participation.