Sociology Semester Exam Study Guide

the empathic understanding of the meanings others attach to their actions
verstehen

the ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives
sociological imagination

the science that studies human society and social behavior
sociology

the systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena is known as a…
theory

(true or false) anything that stands for something else and has a shared meaning attached to it is called a discovery
false

(true or false) punishment or threat of punishment used to enforce conformity is known as a negative sanction
true

(true or false) knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment for practical purpose is discovery
false

(true or false) self-esteem is extreme self-centerness
false

(true or false) technology is the recognition of new uses for existing elements or a new understanding of these elements
false

resisting social change because it comes from outside of one’s group
ethnocentrism

(true or false) middle-old describes individuals aged 75 through 84
true

(true or false) the occupational category that includes doctors, teachers, and nurses is blue collar
false

phase I of Irene Frieze’s theory of adult female development is…
leaving the family

(true or false) retention is the shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on other for financial and physical assistance
false

(true or false) cirrhosis is the organic condition that results in the progressive destruction of brain cells
false

(true or false) the collective term for immigrants from Ireland, Italy, France, Poland, and Greece is white ethnics
true

discrimination that is an outgrowth of the structure of society
institutional discrimination

the blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity
assimilation

(true or false) oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a category of people is known as scapegoating
false

a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true
self-fulfilling prophecy

(true or false) emergency medicine is a field of medicine in which there is not a surplus of doctors
false

an anthropologist who researched the distribution of power between the sexes in preindustrial societies
Ernestine Friedl

the term for the group of elderly who are experiencing the fastest growth in population
old-old

(true or false) alzheimer’s disease is the fatal disease believed to be caused by a virus that attacks the immune system
false

the collective term for people born in the US from 1846 through 1964
baby boom

clothing, buildings, and automobiles are examples of
material culture

a written rule of conduct enacted and enforced by the government is a
law

a group that has its own unique values, norms, and behaviors that exists within a larger culture is a
subculture

the shared rules of conduct that tells us how to act in specific situations are called
norms

neo-nazis, skinheads, and the hare krishna are all examples of
countercultures

a fatal disease that attacks the immune system and leaves the person open to deadly infection is
AIDS

learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role in preparation for assuming that role at a future date is called
anticipatory socialization

the predictor of teenage suicides associated with “copycat” suicides is
cluster effect

the factor that led to the emergence of dating by encouraging people to move to the cities was
industrial revolution

the physical maturing that makes a person capable of sexual reproduction is called
puberty

(true or false) role conflict is the actual behavior of a person performing a role
false

(true or false) the different roles attached to a single status are called a role set
true

(true or false) role performance occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role
false

(true or false) when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role, that person experiences role strain
true

(true or false) a social category is a group of people who share a common trait or status
true

movement between or within social classes or strata
social moblity

likelihood people have of sharing in the opportunities and benefits of society
life chances

theory of stratification based on competition by groups for scarce resources
conflict perspective

method of defining social class in terms of income, education, and occupation
objective method

level below in which families are considered poor by the government
poverty level

social security and unemployment insurance
transfer payments

average number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live
life expectancy

rating that combines level of education, occupational prestige, place of residence, and income
socioeconomic status

jobs that involve manual labor
blue-collar jobs

Identify and describe the four principal factors viewed by contemporary sociologists as having the most influence on personality development.
The four principal factors are heredity, birth order, parental characteristics, and the cultural environment.

Heredity is the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children. Heredity characteristics also include certain aptitudes, a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a specific body of knowledge. Overall, heredity includes inherited characteristics, biological drives, and limits.

Birth order effects peoples personality a lot as well. Children with siblings view the world different than people without brothers or sisters. The order in which we are born also effect our personalities. For example, in one study first born children were more likely to be achievement-oriented and responsible. Later born children tended to be better in social relationships and to be more affectionate and friendly.

Parental characteristics, like age, can effect the relationship between a parent and child. Some parental characteristics that can influence a child’s personality are levels of education, religious orientation, economic status, cultural heritage, and occupational background.

Cultural environment has a very strong influence on personality development. Generally, the cultural environment determines the basic types of personality that will be found in society. Each culture gives rise to a series of traits that are typical of members of that society. For examples, in the United States competitiveness, assertiveness, and individualism are common personality traits.

In essay form, discuss the concept of a minority group and briefly describe the social characteristics that distinguish them from other groups in society.
A minority group is a group of people who are singled out and unequally treated because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices. The top five minority groups in America are: African-Americans, Hispanic or Latin Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and White ethnics. The Asian Americans are often called the model minority because of their cultural background.

Describe the following terms by providing a general description, and major characteristics and trends. Use real world examples for each term, and explain the term within the context of U.S. society.
Reputitional Method
Subjective Method
Objective Method
Reputaional Method is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which individuals in the community rank other community members based on what they know of their characters and lifestyle. This method only works in small communities where everybody know each other.

Subjective Method is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which the individuals themselves are asked to determine their social rank. Researches found that when asked this question most people do not like to say they are in upper or lower classes. Most people place themselves in the middle class.

Objective Method is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which sociologists define social class in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education. This is overall the least biased method.

In an essay that shows your ability to summarize ideas, describe the group treatment of minorities as a continuum from acceptance to rejection.
Minorities have faced many challenges including assimilating into a foreign society, learning English, open discrimination, and hate crimes. Sociologists Gunnar Myrdal wrote about the unfair minority group treatment in the United States. His examples were the enslavement and segregation of African Americans, the establishment of Indian reservations, and the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II.

Progressive Movement an early 20th century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities and to correct injustices in American life. Suffrage the fight for the right to vote. This is what …

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totalitarianism a system in which one leader rules all aspects of the lives of citizens Mein Kampf a book written by Hitler while imprisoned; means “my struggle” WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Vasectomy involves cutting and tying the_____ vas deferens Efforts to control contraception began at least as far back as recorded history WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

On both sides, the outbreak of war stirred powerful feelings of patriotism. True Medical knowledge had made great strides in the first half of the nineteenth century; thus few soldiers died from wounds, infections, or diseases during the Civil War. …

Which of the following is the definition of stress presented Dr. Hans Selye? Stress is the no-specific response of an organism to any demand placed upon it. Which of the following is an alternate definition of stress that was presented …

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