Social Psychology Practice Final Exam

What should police officers do to prevent false identifications during lineups?
A.Show all the potential perpetrators at once.
B.Decrease witness’s stress levels by only showing them mug shots.
C.Tell witnesses that the lineup may not include the suspect.
D.Use foils with a wide range of physical characteristics.
C.Tell witnesses that the lineup may not include the suspect.

The process whereby information obtained after an event alters memories of the event is known as
A.misinformation effect.
B.unconscious transference.
C.selective memory.
D.integrative amnesia
A.misinformation effect.

Social psychological research has revealed a _______ relation between eyewitness confidence and accuracy.
A.weak negative
B.nonexistent
C.strong positive
D.weak positive
D.weak positive

Recall that Rod Lindsay and his colleagues (1981) staged a calculator theft witnessed by students. These students were videotaped as they were questioned about their eyewitness identifications, and the videotapes were later viewed by students playing the role of jurors. These researchers found that student jurors
A.considered circumstances in which the eyewitnesses encountered the alleged thief.
B.believed the eyewitnesses, even when their identifications were inaccurate.
C.discounted circumstantial evidence when eyewitness testimony was available.
D.discounted inaccurate eyewitness testimony when the alleged thief confessed.
B.believed the eyewitnesses, even when their identifications were inaccurate.

Own-race bias may occur because, when people look at same-race faces, they focus on _____________, whereas when they look at different-race faces, they focus on _________________.
A.the whole face all together; features one at a time
B.individual features; the whole face all together
C.features that distinguish individuals from each other; features that distinguish the races from each other
D.noses and mouths; eyes
C.features that distinguish individuals from each other; features that distinguish the races from each other

Social psychological research has revealed a _______ relation between eyewitness confidence and accuracy.
A.weak negative
B.nonexistent
C.strong positive
D.weak positive
D.weak positive

When the misinformation effect occurs, it is due to erroneous ______ that results in a(n) ______.
A.eyewitness testimony; false conviction
B.post-event information; source monitoring error
C.stereotypes; biased decision making by jurors
D.interpretation of evidence; unjustified acquittal
B.post-event information; source monitoring error

The own-race bias refers to the finding that
A.jurors are unlikely to convict a member of their own race.
B.people are better at recognizing faces from members of their own race.
C.crime rates are lower in neighborhoods in which same-race police patrol.
D.lawyers are more successful in defending people of their own race.
B.people are better at recognizing faces from members of their own race.

Chris recently robbed a liquor store and is now scheduled to be in a police lineup where witnesses will try to identify him. Which of the following things would social psychologists NOT recommend to police in order to avoid the “best guess” problem wherein witnesses pick the person who looks most like the suspect?
A.tell witnesses that the person suspected of the crime may or may not be in the lineup
B.do not always include the suspect in an initial lineup
C.present pictures of the suspects all at once rather than one at a time so simultaneous comparisons can be made
D.make sure everyone in the lineup resembles the witness’s description of the suspect
E.present witnesses with both photographs and audio recordings of their voices so they can better identify suspects
C.present pictures of the suspects all at once rather than one at a time so simultaneous comparisons can be made

Recall that Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues (1978) showed participants a series of slides that depicted an automobile accident. Some participants saw a yield sign in the photos, and other participants saw a stop sign. Later, participants were asked questions that contained information that either matched or did not match what they had actually seen (i.e., a stop sign versus a yield sign). Results demonstrated that participants were least accurate in remembering what they had actually seen when
A.they had a very short time to view the slide series.
B.question contents contradicted what they had actually seen.
C.question contents reflected what they had actually seen.
D.they reported what they had seen after being questioned, rather than before.
B.question contents contradicted what they had actually seen.

The process whereby information obtained after an event alters memories of the event is known as
A.the misinformation effect.
B.unconscious transference.
C.a reality-monitoring error.
D.node integration.
A.the misinformation effect.

Recall that Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues (1978) showed participants a series of slides that depicted an automobile accident. Some participants saw a yield sign in the photos, and other participants saw a stop sign. Later, participants were asked questions that contained information that either matched or did not match what they had actually seen (i.e., a stop sign versus a yield sign). Results demonstrated that participants were least accurate in remembering what they had actually seen when
A.they had a very short time to view the slide series.
B.question contents contradicted what they had actually seen.
C.question contents reflected what they had actually seen.
D.they reported what they had seen after being questioned, rather than before.
B.question contents contradicted what they had actually seen.

Which of the following procedures would be most effective in minimizing “false identification” by an eyewitness?
A.Insist that the suspect and foils remain silent during the lineup.
B.Ensure that the suspect and foils differ greatly in appearance.
C.Present the suspect and foils sequentially.
D.Tell the eyewitness nothing about whether the suspect might or might not be in the lineup
C.Present the suspect and foils sequentially.

Ironically, a few scientific studies have revealed that swift imposition of the death penalty is associated with an increase in murders. The authors speculate that this finding may not seem so bizarre if one considers
A.executions as acts of aggression that might lead to imitation.
B.the race of the convicted murderer.
C.economic factors that result in hopelessness and frustration.
D.people’s sense of procedural justice.
A.executions as acts of aggression that might lead to imitation.

Considerable social psychological research has demonstrated that jurors tend to
A.disregard eyewitness testimony when there is powerful circumstantial evidence.
B.overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
C.prefer expert testimony to eyewitness testimony.
D.discount eyewitness testimony when it is presented last in a trial.
B.overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses.

If you were a prosecutor, what would you be most likely to do to convince the jury that the defendant is guilty?
A.Mention the defendant’s criminal record.
B.Explain the defendant’s motives for committing the crime.
C.Describe the circumstantial evidence placing the defendant at the crime scene.
D.Have an eyewitness testify that she saw the defendant commit the crime.
D.Have an eyewitness testify that she saw the defendant commit the crime.

Despite the fact that normative and informational conformity pressures often convince dissenting jurors to adopt the majority point of view, unanimous verdicts are desirable because this requirement encourages jurors to
A.consider the evidence more carefully.
B.discuss their original biases.
C.convict on the more serious offense.
D.reach a speedy and accurate verdict.
A.consider the evidence more carefully.

If a single juror disagrees with the rest, what is likely to happen during deliberations?
A.The majority will come to see that the dissenter is right.
B.The single juror will change his or her mind and vote with the majority.
C.Neither the single juror nor the majority will change their minds and the jury will be hung.
D.The majority will be persuaded by compelling logical arguments from the lone dissenter.
B.The single juror will change his or her mind and vote with the majority.

Empirical research suggests that the most common cause of false convictions is
A.incompetent or overworked defense counsel
B.prejudice among the jury members
C.erroneous eyewitness identification
D.jurors’ inability to understand technical aspects of forensic evidence
C.erroneous eyewitness identification

Considerable social psychological research has demonstrated that jurors tend to
A.disregard eyewitness testimony when there is powerful circumstantial evidence.
B.overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
C.prefer expert testimony to eyewitness testimony.
D.discount eyewitness testimony when it is presented last in a trial.
B.overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses.

Elizabeth Loftus’ “Lost in the Mall” effect is an example of which of the following?
A.A schema-based construal of ambiguous social experience that occurred in the past
B.A case of stereotype-based knowledge overriding the use of individuating information.
C.A use of the availability heuristic that results in a false memory.
D.A reality-monitoring error.
D.A reality-monitoring error.

Which of the following procedures would be most effective in minimizing “false identification” by an eyewitness?
A.Insist that the suspect and foils remain silent during the lineup.
B.Ensure that the suspect and foils differ greatly in appearance.
C.Present the suspect and foils sequentially.
D.Tell the eyewitness nothing about whether the suspect might or might not be in the lineup
C.Present the suspect and foils sequentially.

You remember learning in elementary school that Topeka is the capital of Kansas. However, you don’t remember whether you learned that fact from your third grade teacher, Mr. Rodriguez, or your fourth grade teacher, Ms. Cesario. It seems you may be have problems with
A.differential thinking.
B.acquisition.
C.schematic thinking.
D.source monitoring.
D.source monitoring.

Which of the following is a shortcoming of relying on hypnosis to improve eyewitness testimony?
A.Few eyewitnesses consent to be hypnotized.
B.Hypnotists can plant false memories through post-hypnotic suggestion.
C.People who have been hypnotized become more confident, but not more accurate.
D.Eyewitnesses who have been hypnotized are not allowed to take the stand.
C.People who have been hypnotized become more confident, but not more accurate.

In lineups, witnesses often chose the person who most resembles the image they have stored in memory. This can yield inaccurate identifications, and suggests that the _____ stage of memory is affected by the typical lineup procedure.
A.acquisition
B.storage
C.retrieval
D.reconstructive
C.retrieval

In which of the following ways should lawyers present their case to a jury?
A.story order
B.story order, but only for the prosecution lawyer
C.witness order
D.witness order, but only for the defense lawyer
E.both strategies are equally effective
A.story order

Despite the fact that normative and informational conformity pressures often convince dissenting jurors to adopt the majority point of view, unanimous verdicts are desirable because this requirement encourages jurors to
A.consider the evidence more carefully.
B.discuss their original biases.
C.convict on the more serious offense.
D.reach a speedy and accurate verdict.
A.consider the evidence more carefully.

Which of the following is a shortcoming of relying on hypnosis to improve eyewitness testimony?
A.Few eyewitnesses consent to be hypnotized.
B.Hypnotists can plant false memories through post-hypnotic suggestion.
C.People who have been hypnotized become more confident, but not more accurate.
D.Eyewitnesses who have been hypnotized are not allowed to take the stand.
C.People who have been hypnotized become more confident, but not more accurate.

In lineups, witnesses often chose the person who most resembles the image they have stored in memory. This can yield inaccurate identifications, and suggests that the _____ stage of memory is affected by the typical lineup procedure.
A.acquisition
B.storage
C.retrieval
D.reconstructive
C.retrieval

What should police officers do to prevent false identifications during lineups?
A.Show all the potential perpetrators at once.
B.Decrease witness’s stress levels by only showing them mug shots.
C.Tell witnesses that the lineup may not include the suspect.
D.Use foils with a wide range of physical characteristics.
C.Tell witnesses that the lineup may not include the suspect.

Cognitive interviews were once viewed as promising techniques for enhancing the accuracy of eyewitnesses’ memories. Subsequent research has revealed, however, that they can lead to errors and confabulations. One reason why these interviews lead to errors is that
A.it is difficult for eyewitnesses to create mental image of a crime scene.
B.these interviews rely on hypnosis, which has been found to be unreliable.
C.repeatedly imagining an event can lead to source monitoring errors.
D.polygraph machines can mask the true source of eyewitnesses’ arousal.
C.repeatedly imagining an event can lead to source monitoring errors.

Four men have been indicted for robbing $20,000 from a bank. After the trial, the jury will be most likely to convict
A.Art, who has a criminal record for petty theft.
B.Brian, who recently purchased a new car for $10,000 cash.
C.Cliff, who was the only one identified by an eyewitness.
D.Matt, whose fingerprints were found at the scene.
C.Cliff, who was the only one identified by an eyewitness.

A special type of source-monitoring error, referred to as a(n) _____, occurs when an event someone only imagined comes to be remembered as an actual experience.
A.reality-monitoring error
B.ultimate attribution error
C.misattribution error
D.fantasy-substitute error
A.reality-monitoring error

Recall that Rod Lindsay and his colleagues (1981) staged a calculator theft witnessed by students. In one experimental condition, it was relatively easy to identify the perpetrator; in another condition, it was only moderately easy to identify the perpetrator; in a third condition, it was very difficult to correctly identify the thief. When student witnesses were asked to pick the suspect out of a photo lineup,
A.their accuracy increased as the viewing conditions improved.
B.eyewitness accuracy was generally poor, and unaffected by viewing conditions.
C.there was a discrepancy between witnesses’ confidence and their accuracy.
D.confident witnesses were more accurate than those who weren’t confident.
A.their accuracy increased as the viewing conditions improved.

“Klee style” versus “Kandinsky style,” blue-eyes versus brown eyes, and “overestimators” versus “underestimators” all represent trivial, arbitrary criteria by which to
A.create in-groups and out-groups in the minimal group paradigm.
B.minimize the effects of group membership.
C.perpetuate stereotypes.
D.reduce prejudice.
A.create in-groups and out-groups in the minimal group paradigm.

Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they
A.exist.
B.are overgeneralized to members of a group.
C.are based on experience.
D.reduce cognitive effort.
B.are overgeneralized to members of a group.

Informational (i.e., cognitive) attempts to “re-educate” prejudiced people are often ineffective . This is probably primarily because
A.prejudice is an inevitable part of our sociobiological heritage.
B.prejudice is an affectively-based attitude.
C.stereotypes are a product of erroneous information.
D.it is difficult to influence or control economic forces.
B.prejudice is an affectively-based attitude.

According to what research has revealed regarding attitudes, it is primarily the _______ aspect of prejudiced attitudes that make them relatively impervious to rational or logical arguments.
A.esteem-enhancing
B.cognitive
C.emotional
D.motivational
C.emotional

Even nonprejudiced participants in research by Patricia Devine (1989) can recognize such negative stereotypes as “Jews are materialistic” or “African-Americans are hostile.” Still, nonprejudiced participants do not endorse those stereotypes. This is suggests that activation of stereotypes is ______, whereas the refutation of stereotypes is ______.
A.automatic; controlled
B.controlled; automatic
C.difficult; effortless
D.distressing; a relief
A.automatic; controlled

Stereotypes can be resistant to change because when we encounter behaviors that contradict our stereotypes, we often make _____ those behaviors.
A.situational attributions for
B.exceptional attributions for
C.ultimate attributions for
D.incorrect interpretations of
A.situational attributions for

British social psychologist Henri Tajfel (1982) asserted that in-group bias is
A.an automatic product of information processing.
B.motivated by the desire to enhance self-esteem.
C.a result of the need to perceive the world accurately.
D.more likely in people who are “cognitive misers.”
B.motivated by the desire to enhance self-esteem.

In the jigsaw puzzle classroom technique,
A.children work on jigsaw puzzles to foster cooperative interdependence.
B.lessons are structured so students’ only access to most of the information they will be tested on is from other students.
C.lessons are structured so each student works at their own pace so that each student can feel a sense of mastery.
D.lessons are structured so that groups compete for small prizes to create incentives for learning.
B.lessons are structured so students’ only access to most of the information they will be tested on is from other students.

Imagine that you are a White participant in the experiment by Russell Fazio and his colleagues (1995). More specifically, after you are primed with pictures of African-American faces, you then complete a computer task in which you indicate whether words flashed on the screen are “good” or “bad” words. Finally, you are debriefed by an African-American experimenter. Were you a person high in implicit prejudice, your response time to ______ and you would treat the experimenter _______.
A.”bad” words would be faster; in a cold and disinterested way
B.”good” words would be faster; in a hostile way
C.the face pictures would be faster; in a cold and disinterested way
D.the face pictures would be slower; in an overly nice way
A.”bad” words would be faster; in a cold and disinterested way

As the only African-American in his class, LaMont tends to worry about committing errors because he does not want all of his white counterparts to think that all African-Americans are intellectually inferior. LaMont is experiencing
A.class anxiety.
B.stereotype threat.
C.group hostility.
D.attribution error.
B.stereotype threat.

Keep in mind Gordon Allport’s (1954) description of stereotyping as “the law of least effort.” From Allport’s perspective, people are often
A.motivated tacticians.
B.cognitive misers.
C.prone to scapegoating.
D.lay scientists.
B.cognitive misers.

Recall that Jeff Greenberg and Tom Pyszczynski (1985) showed participants a debate between an African-American and a European-American, and asked them to rate the debaters’ skills. After the debate, in one condition, a confederate made a hostile racist comment about the debaters’ skills; in another, a confederate made a nonracist comment; and in a third condition, no comment was made. These researchers found that when participants overheard a racist comment, their ratings of the African-American were lower on a number of dimensions. The results suggest that
A.competition can activate negative stereotypes.
B.stereotype activation can affect future judgments.
C.the power of the situation can override the activation of negative stereotypes.
D.visual cues to distinctive characteristics activate stereotypes.
B.stereotype activation can affect future judgments.

A(n) ______ refers to the tendency to see relations between objects or events that are not actually related, for example between undesirable behaviors and social categories.
A.artificial association
B.incidental inference
C.illusory correlation
D.bogus association
C.illusory correlation

According to the authors, one reason why school desegregation efforts didn’t have the anticipated positive effects is that the typical classroom
A.teachers hold negative stereotypes about minority children.
B.teachers support common goals, but the students do not.
C.is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.
D.is too large for teachers to give attention to all students who need it.
C.is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.

Conditions under which contact situations reduce prejudice include
A.biased attenuation, schematic interference, and hierarchical status.
B.common goals, mutual interdependence, and equal status.
C.stereotype suppression, enhanced independence, and positive affect.
D.affective suppression, mutual dependence, and repeated contact.
B.common goals, mutual interdependence, and equal status.

When prejudiced people say, “they all look alike to me,” they are illustrating the
A.out-group homogeneity bias.
B.in-group bias.
C.illusory correlation.
D.ultimate attribution error.
A.out-group homogeneity bias.

Social psychologist Janet Swim (1994) has collected data that suggest that gender stereotypes
A.tend to overestimate true gender differences.
B.are held by men, but not by women.
C.are generally quite accurate, but sometimes tend to underestimate true gender differences.
D.are more often positive than negative, unlike racial stereotypes.
C.are generally quite accurate, but sometimes tend to underestimate true gender differences.

The tendency to make dispositional attributions for undesirable behaviors or negative outcomes about members of an outgroup is called the
A.fundamental attribution error
B.ultimate attribution error
C.out-group homogeneity bias
D.actor/observer effect
B.ultimate attribution error

_____ posits that increased prejudice and discrimination result from competition between groups for limited resources and social goods, and the consequent group inequalities that ensue
A.The self-fulfilling prophecy
B.Relative deprivation theory
C.Attribution theory
D.Realistic group conflict theory
D.Realistic group conflict theory

Which of the following statements is false? Hostility between two groups can be reduced by
A.having the two groups work together to achieve a common goal.
B.making sure that the two groups are of equal status.
C.having the groups interact in a formal setting with each group occupying half of the room.
D.making sure that it is clear that norms favor equality.
C.having the groups interact in a formal setting with each group occupying half of the room.

Stereotyping is a way of _____ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes _______.
A.coding; destructive
B.simplifying; adaptive
C.justifying; reassuring
D.judging; decisive
B.simplifying; adaptive

_____ refers to the apprehension among minority group members that they might confirm existing cultural stereotypes.
A.Performance ambivalence
B.Stereotype threat
C.Stereotypic anxiety
D.Evaluation apprehension
B.Stereotype threat

Stereotypes are the _____ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.
A.denotative
B.behavioral
C.cognitive
D.affective
C.cognitive

Based on the research of Clark and Clark (Black children’s doll choice), one nearly inevitable consequence of being the target of relentless prejudice is
A.genocide.
B.discrimination.
C.lower self-esteem among those in the stigmatized group.
D.rebellion.
C.lower self-esteem among those in the stigmatized group.

Carl Hovland and Robert Sears (1940) conducted an archival study to determine whether there was a relation between cotton prices and lynchings in the South. They found a significant negative correlation (-.72) between those two variables. These findings suggest that when _____, out-group hostility _______.
A.in-group members experience economic hardship; increases
B.out-group members gain economic ground; decreases
C.in-group members experience cohesiveness; increases
D.out-group members increase in number; decreases
A.in-group members experience economic hardship; increases

Modern racism is _____ than “traditional” prejudice.
A.more blatant
B.more indirect
C.more explicit
D.less serious
B.more indirect

Suppose that Herman is prejudiced toward members of Group A. Increasing Herman’s contact with Group A is most likely to reduce his prejudice if:
A.he develops a friendship with one member of Group A, but never meets any other members of this group.
B.his basketball team often plays other teams that have lots of Group A members.
C.he volunteers to help build a house for Habitat for Humanity, and several of his coworkers are members of Group A. At the end of each day, he and all the other workers often go out to dinner together.
D.he gets a job with a company that hires lots of Group A members. Herman has a management position, whereas all of the Group A workers have lower status jobs.
C.he volunteers to help build a house for Habitat for Humanity, and several of his coworkers are members of Group A. At the end of each day, he and all the other workers often go out to dinner together.

_____ refers to a negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their group membership.
A.Discrimination
B.Stereotypes
C.Racism
D.Prejudice
D.Prejudice

From a social cognitive perspective, the first step toward prejudice is
A.the categorization of people into groups.
B.the preference we give to in-groups.
C.our tendency to disparage out-groups.
D.identification with similar others.
A.the categorization of people into groups.

In the introduction to Chapter 13 (Prejudice: Causes and Consequences) the authors describe two events: Thurgood Marshall’s experience with prejudice and discrimination in the South, and the aftermath of the O.J. Simpson murder trial. What do these two events have in common? They
A.reflect a racial divide that persists in the United States.
B.show that because of race, national celebrities are not always treated the same.
C.reveal that consequences of prejudice are different, depending on the part of the country.
D.demonstrate the power of prejudice to distort our interpretations.
A.reflect a racial divide that persists in the United States.

A number of controlled experiments have provided support for the scapegoat theory of prejudice. For example, frustrated Anglo-American students in Alabama delivered stronger shocks to an African-American than to a fellow Anglo-American (Rogers & Prentice-Dunn, 1981), and frustrated students high in anti-Semitism wrote more hostile stories about targets with Jewish surnames (Weatherly, 1961). These controlled studies suggest that
A.realistic competition is not a prerequisite for scapegoating.
B.when no scapegoat is available, people will turn against in-group members.
C.out-group members are less likely than in-group members to engage in scapegoating.
D.frustration is a sufficient cause for scapegoating.
D.frustration is a sufficient cause for scapegoating.

Which of the following does not promote helping?
A.a good mood
B.a bad mood
C.empathy
D.diffusion of responsibility
D.diffusion of responsibility

According to evolutionary psychologists, the norm of reciprocity developed because
A.organisms that are too selfish threaten survival of the group
B.organisms that are too selfless are likely to get exploited
C.organisms have an inborn tendency to help which is discouraged by socialization
D.organisms that are too selfish threaten survival of the group and organisms that are too selfless are likely to get exploited
E.organisms that are too selfless are likely to get exploited and organisms have an inborn tendency to help which is discouraged by socialization
D.organisms that are too selfish threaten survival of the group and organisms that are too selfless are likely to get exploited

The bystander effect refers to the finding that
A.bystanders will be more likely to help when they feel they are competent to do so.
B.the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely each one of them is to help.
C.the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely a victim is to be helped.
D.witnesses to an emergency are more likely to help victims similar to them.
B.the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely each one of them is to help.

Recall that Bibb Latan and John Darley (1970) had participants complete questionnaires alone, or in the presence of two others. When the experimental room filled with “smoke,” participants who were alone reported the potential emergency more quickly than did those who worked on the questionnaire in the company of others. These results provide support for the concept of
A.diffusion of responsibility.
B.social exchange theory.
C.evaluation apprehension.
D.pluralistic ignorance.
D.pluralistic ignorance.

The overjustification effect suggests that providing ____________ for volunteering or community service can lead to __________________.
A.excessive rewards; intrinsic motivation to help
B.excessive rewards; an antisocial personality
C.barely sufficient rewards; self-attributions as “kind” and “helpful”
D.insufficient rewards; an antisocial personality
C.barely sufficient rewards; self-attributions as “kind” and “helpful”

The concept of _____ refers to the idea that when no bystanders to a possible emergency looked concerned, other bystanders assume that nothing is wrong.
A.the bystander effect
B.diffusion of responsibility
C.pluralistic ignorance
D.evaluation apprehension
C.pluralistic ignorance

Pluralistic ignorance is an example of the power of _____ to inhibit helping.
A.urban overload
B.diffusion of responsibility
C.negative-state relief effects
D.informational social influence
D.informational social influence

Men are more likely to help in _____, whereas women are likely to help in ______.
A.heroic ways; altruistic ways
B.ways that involve a long term commitment; heroic ways
C.communal ways; exchange ways
D.heroic ways; ways that involve a long term commitment
D.heroic ways; ways that involve a long term commitment

According to Dan Batson’s (1991) empathy-altruism hypothesis, Jane is most likely to help
A.Bill, who told Jane that he “feels her pain” and understands her needs.
B.Joe, who just told Jane that his mother passed away.
C.Susan, who made Jane very angry yesterday but apologized today.
D.Emily, who just helped Jane move into a new apartment.
B.Joe, who just told Jane that his mother passed away.

According to Bibb Latan and John Darley (1970), a number of things must occur before witnesses decide to intervene in an emergency situation. According to this stage model, pluralistic ignorance is most likely to affect witnesses’
A.attention to their surroundings.
B.interpretation of an event as an emergency.
C.sense of obligation to intervene.
D.assessments of the costs and benefits of intervening.
B.interpretation of an event as an emergency.

According to proponents of the negative-state relief hypothesis, people who feel sad, guilty, or dejected are motivated to help another in order to alleviate their own unpleasant feelings. Thus, the negative-state relief hypothesis is most consistent with a ___________ approach to understanding prosocial behavior.
A.socialization
B.social responsibility
C.interdependent
D.social exchange
D.social exchange

According to _____, helping occurs only when the benefits of helping outweigh the costs.
A.evolutionary psychology
B.the empathy-altruism hypothesis
C.kin selection
D.social exchange theory
D.social exchange theory

According to the bystander effect (Latan & Darley, 1970), if you just witnessed a mugging, you will be most likely to call for help if you
A.believe are the sole witness.
B.believe there are seven other witnesses.
C.are in a good mood prior to the mugging.
D.perceive yourself as similar to the victim.
A.believe are the sole witness.

According to evolutionary psychologists, we help others because of three factors that have become ingrained in our genes: the reciprocity norm, _____, and _____.
A.empathy; cultural values
B.kin selection; the ability to learn to follow norms and customs
C.social exchange; kin selection
D.empathy; social exchange
B.kin selection; the ability to learn to follow norms and customs

Based on results of John Darley’s and Daniel Batson’s (1973) “Good Samaritan” experiment with students at the Princeton Theological Seminary, who is most likely to help an elderly women who has slipped on the ice?
A.August, who is killing time before an appointment
B.John, who is a seminary student
C.Norman, who has just won first prize in a speech contest
D.Clifford, who has just read the New Testament
A.August, who is killing time before an appointment

In John Darley’s and Bibb Latan’s (1968) classic “seizure” experiment, participants were more likely to help the (alleged) seizure victim (and to help more quickly) when they believed that
A.they were the only one listening.
B.they would later meet the victim face-to-face.
C.there were four other students listening.
D.the experimenter was unaware of what was going on.
A.they were the only one listening.

Juanita sees a crowd of people gathered around a man lying on the ground. She thinks about whether to call an ambulance, but then reasons that somebody else has probably already done so. This is an example of
A.diffusion of responsibility.
B.the urban-overload hypothesis.
C.the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
D.social exchange theory.
A.diffusion of responsibility.

Examine the effects of social variables and cognitions; attempts to understand behavior within its social context Social Psychology the external environument, or the behavioral context, can have both subtle and forceful effects on people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors. situationism WE …

Psychologist who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another are called Social psychologist Heifers theory of how we explain others behaviors is the Attribution theory WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

“A branch of ‘social psychology’ concerned with the study of groups. [Areas of research include the] Interactions [of group members], cohesiveness of groups, leadership, and group decision processes. ” The Dictionary of Behavioural Science (Wolman B. B. 1989) It can …

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In _____, a person exhibits persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. a psychological disorder David Rosenhan and colleagues conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic labels. They went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of “hearing voices” …

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