SOCA Exam 3

had the fewest opportunities for social inequality to emerge
Hunting and gathering societies

__________ refers to the receipt of money over a period of time, whereas __________ refers to the net value of assets that one has at a given point in time
Income; wealth

Before retirement, most people get most or all of their income from __________
their jobs

Which of the following countries is much less egalitarian than the others?
the United States

In general, technology __________ jobs that require higher levels of education while it __________ jobs that require middle and lower levels of education.
complements; replaces

The fact that Apple Computer manufactures all iPads and iPhones in __________ is an example of __________.
China; outsourcing

The premise of the __________ is that billionaires, millionaires, and all those at the top of the income ladder are expected to pay more in taxes than minimum-wage employees.
progressive tax system

The majority of minimum-wage employees are __________.

Lana, a single woman with no dependents, is unable to afford basic necessities, such as housing and healthcare. What type of poverty is she experiencing?
absolute poverty

The feminization of poverty is a term used to describe __________.
single-parent families in which a woman is the primary provider and primary caregiver

In general, countries with __________ inequality also tend to have __________ social mobility
high; low

__________ are much more likely than __________ to live in poverty in the United States.
Racial minorities; whites

Current research shows that there is a relationship between poverty, __________, and __________; this is particularly worrisome in the case of children.
stress; cognitive development

Patricia works as a sales manager and earns approximately $60,000 a year. She owns her own home and has $20,000 in the bank as an emergency fund. She also owns a rental property, from which she earns $12,000 a year. Which of the following responses best represents her wealth?
her two properties and her $20,000 savings

Sandra is a corporate attorney. She graduated from Harvard Law School at the top of her class and earns $250,000 a year. Sociologists who evaluate Sandra’s social position based on the dimensions of her income, education, and occupation would describe her as __________.
having high SES

Ben was a bank teller at Goliath National Bank, until the tellers at Goliath were replaced by ATM machines. As a result, Ben decided to go back to school and update his computer skills. Ben’s scenario best represents a consequence of __________.
skill-biased technological change

Which of the following scenarios best represents outsourcing?
the opening of a call center for an American credit card company in the Philippines

Remington is involved in the Occupy Wall Street movement. He camped out for weeks at a park opposite the statehouse in Columbus, Ohio, and was eventually arrested. Remington, like other protestors, has many concerns about his economic condition, but he likely joined the movement to protest __________.
the disparity in income and wealth between the top 1 percent of Americans and everyone else

Candace and Bill are married with two children. Bill works and earns minimum wage. Candace stays home to raise their two young children. Their annual household income in 2012 was below the poverty line. Given this scenario, you can accurately infer that __________.
their annual income is below $23,000

Karen is a home care aid. She earns about $10 an hour and works 40 hours a week. She is unable to save, and last month her car broke down. She cannot afford to fix her car, being already late in paying her bills for gas and electricity. From this description of Karen’s life, you conclude that she is a member of which class?
the working poor

A group of friends are discussing their salaries. Among them they earn the following per year: $40,000, $50,000, $65,000, $68,000, and $75,000. What is the median salary among this group of friends?

It is often better to use the __________, instead of the __________, to measure household income because it is a more stable calculation that is influenced less by outliers.
median; mean

Don and Cal are high school friends from the same hometown. After high school, Don started to work full-time as an overnight cleaner at a floor cleaning business. Cal attended a public university nearby and earned a bachelor’s degree in marketing. At their 10-year reunion Don and Cal discuss the courses their lives have taken since they graduated from high school. Don has been working full-time for the whole 10 years and makes about $40,000 per year from the cleaning business. Cal has been working for 5 years as manager of the marketing department at a health insurance company in the area; he makes about $70,000 per year. What concept would a sociologist use to describe the differences between Don and Cal?
the college wage premium

Dawn works as a lawyer for a Fortune 500 company and recently bought her first home. She was the first person in her family to attend college. Even though while she was growing up her family was very busy working to pay rent and other bills—her dad worked as a janitor and her mother as a childcare assistant—her parents have always been supportive of her education and career goals. What sociological concept best describes Dawn’s life?
upward mobility

A sociologist would most likely conclude what about homeless individuals?
The homeless live in absolute poverty

The concept of __________ is at the heart of the study of social stratification.

The dominant system of inequality prior to the advent of capitalism is known as __________

The median family income in the United States in 2012 was approximately __________.

Under feudalism, the laborers who were obligated to work for landowners were called __________.

According to Forbes magazine, in 2014, the richest individual in the world was __________.

The primary way in which most Americans accumulate wealth is through
home ownership

Illegal or “underground” earnings from crime or from untaxed (undeclared) work or activity are __________.
considered neither income nor wealth

The study of the distinctions among different social classes is called __________
class analysis

In Marxist terms, the important distinction in a capitalist society was between the __________ and the __________.
proletariat; bourgeoisie

__________ is a designation of class that considers income, occupation, and salary
Socioeconomic status

As a result of economic restructuring, average wages have __________ since the 1970s.

Most “one percenters” __________.
are blue-collar workers

Because there are no obvious ways of determining how much opportunity individuals really have, social scientists measure it indirectly by examining __________.
social mobility

In a meritocracy __________.
rewards are linked to personal ability

Sociologists refer to societies in which individuals experience no social mobility as __________.
cast society’s

To measure __________ sociologists can use intergenerational correlations between parents’ and projected children’s __________.
social mobility; incomes

In 2012, the poverty line for a family of four was __________.

Labor markets and government policies are both important factors that influence __________
social mobility

A true meritocracy would most likely be considered a(n) __________ society by sociologists.

Who theorized that the critical divisions between classes were the result of the economic system?
Karl Marx

When did homelessness begin to grow into a serious problem in the United States?

Why is it difficult to get an accurate count of the homeless?
Many of the homeless are in and out of hospitals

Kenneth lives in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood. His home is poorly ventilated, which triggers asthma attacks. As a result of these stressors, he has high blood pressure. How would sociologists describe Kenneth’s cognitive development?
as structurally immobile

The components of Nike tennis shoes are produced in different parts of the world. The final assembly of the shoes is completed in China. Thereafter the shoes are shipped to the United States, where David purchases a pair at a suburban mall in Denver. Of the following economic phenomena, which does this scenario best represent?

The United States spends __________ on programs that directly alleviate poverty than other wealthy nations

Max Weber’s definition of race is based on a viewpoint referred to as __________.

Sociologists describe race as a social construct. What does this statement mean?
Race is a system that is invented, created by human beings.

Rosa is a Guatemalan immigrant. She has learned to speak English and has taken to celebrating traditionally American holidays, such as Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July. Rosa is experiencing __________.

Which of the following statements regarding how Brazilians think about race is true?
Brazilians classify people based on specific combinations of skin color, hair color, facial features, and hair texture.

Acts of racial or ethnic discrimination can be classified as __________.
individual or institutional

In the United States, __________kept blacks from voting, from attending quality schools, and from participating equally in a wide variety of social institutions in the American South.
Jim Crow laws

Which of the following is an example of institutional discrimination?
a corporation’s systematic denial to women of access to managerial positions

Sociologist Devah Pager (2003), who tested the influence of criminal records on the job applications of blacks and whites, found that __________
white applicants with criminal records were more likely to be considered for jobs than black applicants without criminal records

In a study involving fictitious résumés of applicants with stereotypical “white names” (Emily and Greg) and “black names” (Lakisha and Jamal), researchers found that __________.
résumés with “white names” received 50 percent more follow-up calls than résumés with “black names”

In an ethnographic study of black and white working-class men, Deirdre Royster (2003) found that the job market was __________.
not fair and not meritocratic

According to the U.S. census data, black and Latino families are __________ white families regarding one’s probability to fall below the poverty line.
more likely than

Current data indicate that Asian Americans have the highest median household incomes in the United States. Researchers caution, however, that the data about Asian incomes can be misinterpreted because __________.
some Asians, such as Vietnamese and Cambodian Americans, are at the bottom of the income hierarchy

__________ refer(s) to the accumulated sum of assets (savings accounts, homes, cars) minus the sum of debts (mortgages, loans, credit card debts).

Over the last three decades, from 1980 to 2010, the rates at which Latinos completed college __________.

__________ are the most residentially segregated of all racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
African Americans

Sociologists have observed that upper-middle-class blacks earn __________ percent of what their white counterparts earn.

According to current statistics, over __________ adults are serving time behind bars on any given day in America.
2 million

___________ are more likely to rely on emergency clinics as their usual source of healthcare.
African Americans

Why are a disproportionate number of African Americans unable to vote?
Many African Americans have lost their right to vote following felony convictions.

The term racial stratification refers to __________.
clearly significant gaps between racial groups along social and economic dimensions

Individuals of mixed-race ancestry are more likely to identify themselves as __________ if they have Asian ancestry, but individuals with __________ ancestry are more likely to be assigned to a single race by others, regardless how they self-identify.
multiracial; African

During a lecture about race in his sociology class, Tomas becomes confused. He recently discovered, on his birth certificate, that he was labeled as white, yet his much younger brother, Carlos, is classified as Hispanic on his birth certificate. What could best explain this discrepancy in labels?
How social institutions choose to label and identify racial and ethnic groups changes over time.

Sophia is a third-generation Italian. She heard stories about how her grandparents experienced discrimination when they arrived in the United States. Her grandparents also maintained their culture and traditions by continuing to speak Italian in addition to leaning English. Sophia knows very little about Italian culture and does not speak Italian. What accounts for this lack of cultural knowledge?
Sophia’s grandparents and parents gradually assimilated, taking on the traditions of their new country.

Mawenzi has sent out hundreds of résumés but has gotten very few replies, even though he graduated with honors from a top-tier school and has experience and excellent references. If Mawenzi suspected intentional discrimination, what statement would support his suspicion?
Mawenzi is experiencing the disadvantage of having a stereotypical “black name.”

Mawenzi is experiencing the disadvantage of having a stereotypical “black name.”
Alicia is most likely to identify herself as black.

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