Soc Exam 3 – Chapter 11

Essentialism
Max Weber felt that race stemmed from common inherited and inheritable traits that actually derive from common descent

Race
A system for classifying people based on perceived innate physical appearances

Ethnicity
system for classifying people who are perceived to share cultural similarities

In the US, race has always historically
mattered more than ethnicity

color-coded hierarchy
european explorers created it to dominate people across the globe through exploitation and enslavement

Race is a social construct means that
race is a system that is invented, created by human beings

assimiliation
a person or groups culture comes to resemble those of another culture

stereotyping
negative, simplified generalizations about a group

discrimination
involves actions that harm individuals

Nazi police culminated in extermination camps of millions of men, women, and children in world war II is an example of
genocide

Jim Crow laws
kept blacks from voting, attending schools or participating equally in social institutions in the American South

apartheid
in South Africa, segregated non-whites from whites and made legal many forms of discrimination that benefitted the white ruling minority

Example of institutional discrimination?
a corporations denial of women to access manager positions

Sociologist Devah Pager found that
white applicants with criminal records were more likely to be considered for jobs rather than black applicants without criminal records

the percentage of black men who have been incarcerated is:
disproportionate to their percentage representation in the population at large.

a study involving resumes of applicants with more white or black names found that
resumes with white names received 50% more follow up calls than resumes with black names

Although data indicates that Asian Americans have the highest median household income in the U.S., data also shows that
some asians such as Vietnamese and Cambodian Americans are at the bottom of the income hierarchy.

in 2012, the unemployment rate for black Americans was
nearly twice the rate as that of white Americans

Who has the highest rate of educational attainment in the U.S?
Asian Americans

From 1980 to 2010, the rate at which Latinos completed college
doubled

Who are the most residentially segregated of all racial and ethnic groups in the U.S?
African Americans

Sociologists estimate that one-third of adult black men who finish high school but do not attend college will
serve time in prison

Why are a disproportionate number of African Americans unable to vote?
Many African Americans have lost their right to vote following felony convictions

The term racial stratification refers to
clearly significant gaps between racial groups along social and economic dimensions

What is the goal of affirmative action?
to increase the representation of minorities and women in fields from which they have historically been excluded

Who made the following statement in 1965: “You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race, saying, ‘you are free to compete with all the others,’ and still justly believe you have been completely fair.”
Lyndon B. Johnson

Individuals of mixed-race ancestry are more likely to identify themselves as
multiracial

Individuals with African ancestry are more likely to
be assigned to a single race by others, regardless how they self-identify.

Max Weber’s definition of race is based o a viewpoint referred to as
essentialism

Which of the following statements is true according to the analogy of the red, blue, and yellow colored blocks cited in the text?
We grow up learning to look for certain pieces of information about a persons body to decide which race they belong to, while disregarding others

What research method do sociologists use to study patterns and representations of minorities in magazines, television, and movies?
content analysis

in an ethnographic study of black and white working-class men, Deirde Royster (2003) found that the job market was
not fair and not meritocratic

Which of the following statements regarding the racial gap in household wealth between ehite and black Americans is false?
Black Americans have made no gains in income since the civil rights movement

From 1980-2010, the rates at which Latinos dropped out of high school
shrunk by nearly half

According to current statistics, how many adults are serving time behind bars in America?
2 Million

American adults account for how much of all prison and jail inmates world wide?
25%

African Americans are more likely to rely on
emergency clinics as their usual source of healthcare

How does one come to the conclusion that race is a social construct?
Definitions of race take different forms in different places in the world and at different times

Acts of racial or ethnic discrimination can be classified as
individual or institutional

What is true according to the analogy of the red-, blue-, and yellow- colored blocks cited in the text?
we grow up learning to look for certain pieces of information about a persons body to decide which race they belong to, while disregarding others.

What is true regarding how Brazilians think about race?
they classify people based on specific combinations of skin color, hair color, facial features, and hair texture

acts of racial of ethnic discrimination can be classified as
individual or institutional

Some of the earliest research on prejudice and discrimination was conducted by PSYCHOLOGISTS who saw racism as
an expression of particular personality disorders

A pessimistic interpretation of recent survey results used to measure prejudice might be that
whites are reluctant to harboring racial prejudices

Sociologists have observed that upper-middle-class blacks earn
85% of what white counterparts earn

Race a symbolic category based on phenotype or ancestry and constructed according to specific social and historical context, that is misrecognized as a natural category Race Socially whatever the dominant group wants it to mean WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

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1. Which of the following presented the greatest challenges to the United States after World War I? The war brought to light the differences among Americans 2. African Americans who served in World War I returned home to find discrimination …

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