Skeletal System Anatomy

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Movement: The skeleton has movable levers that muscles are attached to; the muscles then pull onto the levers to move different bones in the body. Protection: The skeleton has certain bones that are made to protect important organs such as the ribs are there to protect the heart and lungs. Shape/Support: The skeleton gives the body its frame work so that it can stay in a certain form and also supports everything that is inside the body. Reproduction: The skeleton has certain bones called long bones that can produce and reproduce red and white blood cells in its bone marrow.

Mineral Storage: The bones can store such things as calcium which the body needs to work properly and the bones can also store fat. (Figure 1 Bone Groups) Bones in the body are all divided into 5 different groups dependant on what there main job is, these bones are: Long bones: the long bones are used for reproduction of red and white blood cells and contain bone marrow, they are also work as levers some examples of long bones would be the femur, tibia, fibula and humerus. Short bones: these are shorter than the long bone and don’t have bone marrow and are mainly used for movement some examples of these would be the carpals and metacarpals.

Flat bones: these bones have flat smooth surfaces and are mainly there to protect organs and attach to muscle some examples of these would be the cranium, sternum, ribs and the scapulae. Irregular bones: these are bones that have different shapes and sizes and can be used for protection and example of this would be the lumbar vertebrae. Sesamoid bones: these bones are the type that are found in tendons and an example of this could be the patella. (Figure 2 Axial) In the human skeleton bones are divided into two parts, the axial and appendicular skeleton.

The appendicular skeleton is mainly there to make the bones work with the muscles so that movement occurs. The axial skeleton main function is to protect and an example of this would be the cranium protecting the brain. Some of the bones that are found in the axial skeleton are the cranium which consists of 8 bones and protects the brain and this is a flat bone. The vertebrae column is also in the axial skeleton and this consists of 7 cervical vertebrae that are found in the neck, there are 12 thoracic vertebrae, which are in the chest area, and 5 lumbar vertebrae that are found in the lower back.

These vertebrae protect the spinal cord that sends signals up and down your back and are irregular bones. The ribs are part of the axial skeleton and there are 12 pairs in total these are flat bones, which are made to protect the organs within. Some of the bones that are found in the appendicular skeleton are the scapulae’s that are flat bones and the clavicles that are short bones and these two bones make up your collarbones. The arms are part of the appendicular skeleton and they are made up of the humerus, radius and ulna and all of these are long bones that are mainly used for movement.

Within the wrist there are 8 carpal bones which are short bones and in the hand there are 5 metacarpal bones and they are also short bones. The phalanges are also found in the fingers and there are 14 in total, 2 in each of the thumbs and 3 in each finger these are shorts bones. (Figure 3 Appendicular) The pelvic girdle and legs are found in the appendicular skeleton and contain an illium, an ischium and a pubis and these are all there for support.

The femur, tibia and fibula are found in each leg and are there for support and movement, they come from the long bone category, also the patella is included into the leg and this is a sesamoid bone that is in the tendon of the knee. The ankle and foot are made up of 7 tarsals and 5 metatarsals and they are short bones. When playing and competing in sports your body will almost always be using movement. To make movement happen the bones in your body act as levers, protection and support, all of these are what your bones have to do for the body to achieve the movement that it wants when playing sport.

When a goalkeeper in football uses an over arm throw he will be using his hands to grip the ball and this arm to put the force into launching the ball away from his body. To do this he will use his humerus, radius, ulna, metatarsals and phalanges, the humerus then abducts and the radius and ulna extend, whilst this is happening the ball is being gripped by the hand and the phalanges are flexing around the ball. When the ball is thrown the humerus adducts and the ulna and radius flex bringing the arm back into the body.

At the last point of the movement the ball is released and the phalanges extend loosening the grip on the ball. When kicking a ball in football you are using your foot and entire leg the bones used when kicking a ball are the tibia, fibula, femur, phalanges, tarsals and metatarsals. (Figure 4 Appendicular) When you kick a football one leg is left for the support of the body whilst the other one is there to make the contact and put force onto the ball, if right footed the player would put all of the support onto his left leg whilst the right foot is off the ground.

The femur in the right leg would extend and then after that the tibia and fibula would follow also extending so that power is hitting the ball from the swing of the leg. Then at the ankle plantar flexion occurs and the foot is brought into the football and the phalanges, tarsals and metatarsals are used to make contact with the ball. You might also use your arms when kicking a ball as they can act to balance the body whilst on one leg, to do this the arms are normally out stretched and raised to shoulder length.

When this happens the humerus, ulna and radius are abducted outwards away from the body and this will make it easier to concentrate on kicking the ball and not balancing the body. When in a game of football the ball made to be brought down to the ground with the help of the chest to do this the chest has to pushed outwards and the shoulders raised slightly whilst the arms can be brought out to help balance the body. The bones that are used in this movement are the sternum, ribs, humerus, ulna, scapula and radius.

When the ball comes down to the body the first thing that it makes contact with is the ribs and sternum and there main function in this is mainly for protection of the vital organs behind them but it can also be used to stop the ball and bring it to the ground sp that it can be controlled in a quick movement. Whilst this happens the scapulas in the shoulders are elevated as the ball makes contact with the chest area and then quickly depressed to put a downwards force on the ball to bring it to the ground. To help with the balance of the body the arms are used with the humerus flexing and the ulna and radius extending at the same time.

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