President James A. Garfield and Senator Henry Cabot

Who dominated national politics in the United States during the last decades of the nineteenth century?
Dynamic party bosses
President James A. Garfield unwittingly helped the cause of civil service reform when he
was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker.
Why were Irish Catholic voters offended by James G. Blaine’s campaign?
Blaine neglected to respond to a slur on Catholic voters.
The most enthusiastic supporters of the tariff in the nineteenth century were
industrialists and westerners who traded in wool, hides, and lumber.
How effective was the Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation’s first federal regulatory agency?
It was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent.
In which American cities did the population exceed one million people by 1900?
New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia
Which of the following describes the world economy at the turn of the twentieth century?
An industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third world tied to the industrial core by economic colonialism
Which of the following describes the majority of immigrants’ lifestyles in the United States after 1900?
They lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land.
Congress approved a literacy test for immigrants in 1896
as a means of limiting the influx of uneducated people into the country.
How did the percentage of children under age fifteen working in the paid labor force in the United States change during the years leading up to World War I?
The percentage of children working increased decade by decade.
How did business expansion and consolidation affect the social structure in the late nineteenth century United States?
A new class of white male salaried managers emerged.
What developed as a result of the opening of department stores in the late nineteenth century United States?
A new consumer culture
During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for
public ownership of the railroads, an income tax, and equal pay for women.
Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,
fought for higher pay and better working conditions for skilled labor.
Which of the following was an outcome of the Haymarket affair?
Skilled workers turned toward the American Federation of Labor.
Throughout much of the nineteenth century, middle-class American women were confined by a cultural ideology that dictated that they
exist within the private sphere of the household.
Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passion for
New York City’s Central Park was planned to provide
a natural oasis away from the busyness of the city.
. By 1892, the Farmers’ Alliance had become
the People’s Party.
The platform of the People’s Party in the 1890s
presented an alternative vision of economic democracy.
One of the root causes of the major strike at the Pullman plant in 1893 was
the company’s attempts to control the work process.
After his six-month jail sentence for his part in the Pullman strike, union leader Eugene Debs believed that
workers must take control and establish a socialist state.
Which one of the United States allowed women to vote in 1890?
Which of the following describes the National Woman Suffrage Association, which Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed in 1869?
It demanded the vote for women.
The unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890 signaled
the beginning of a promising new era in women’s fight for the vote.
What was one outcome of the depression of 1893 in the United States?
The unemployment of nearly half of the labor force
How did the People’s Party fare in the presidential election of 1892?
The People’s Party captured more than a million votes.
What factor posed a major obstacle to the alignment of the Populists and Democrats in the election of 1896?
William Jennings Bryan’s running mate, Arthur Sewall
At the St. Louis People’s Party convention in 1896, the Populist delegates decided to
nominate Tom Watson for vice president despite Bryan’s resistance to the idea.
What was the impact of the 1896 election on the Populist Party?
The Populist Party was the biggest loser.
What occurrence provoked America’s entrance into the Spanish-American War in 1898?
Pressure by the press and the sinking of the Maine
For what reason was it difficult for the United States to win control of the Philippines after 1898?
Filipino revolutionaries fought against the United States for seven years.
How did the American progressive movement begin and evolve?
It began at the grassroots level and percolated up to the national level of government.
Progressives launched the social purity movement to
attack prostitution and other vices.
The Hepburn Act (1906) marked the first time that
a government commission was authorized to examine the records of a private business and to set prices.
The term muckrakers refers to Progressive Era journalists who were known for
writing stories about corporate and political wrongdoing.
What did J. P. Morgan receive in return for his actions in the panic of 1907?
The tacit approval of President Roosevelt for U.S. Steel’s acquisition of Tennessee Coal and Iron
President Roosevelt inherited the Open Door policy, which was designed to
ensure American commercial entry into China.
. Which of the following describes a significant difference between William Howard Taft’s presidency and Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency?
Taft believed it was up to the courts, not the president, to arbitrate social issues.
What happened to progressive reform after Democrats swept the congressional elections of 1910?
It continued in areas such as mine and railroad safety and workday limitations.
To compensate for the revenue that would be lost as a result of the new Underwood tariff, in 1913 the House of Representatives passed
the federal income tax.
Which of the following statements describes the Federal Reserve Act of 1913?
It was the most significant piece of domestic legislation in Wilson’s presidency.
What did Eugene V. Debs advocate as an alternative to the progressive programs of the Republicans and Democrats?
Debs urged men and women to liberate themselves from the barbarism of private ownership and wage slavery.
Margaret Sanger promoted birth control in the 1910s because she
believed it would usefully alter social and political power relationships.
The efforts of Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt were instrumental in
woman suffrage.
Beginning in the 1890s, progressive southerners sought to reform the electoral system in the South by
disfranchising black voters.
President Wilson’s most controversial action in Latin America during his first term as president was his
intervention in Mexico’s affairs after the Mexican revolution.
What motivated the rebellion of Mexican farmers led by Pancho Villa in 1916-1917?
The rebels believed the new American-backed government had betrayed the revolution’s promise to help the common people.
What view formed the basis for President Wilson’s foreign policy?
America’s moral duty to support national self-determination, peaceful free trade, and political democracy
Germany reacted to the 1914 blockade
with a submarine blockade of Great Britain.
How did President Wilson respond to the Germans’ sinking of the Lusitania?
Wilson threatened a break in diplomatic relations with Germany.
How close were the votes in the House and Senate for and against a declaration of war against Germany in April 1917?
The House and Senate both voted to declare war with large majorities.
The Military Draft Act of 1917 prohibited
prostitution and alcohol near training camps.
How did President Wilson demonstrate his progressive credentials when the United States entered the war in 1917?
He created new federal agencies to deal with the specific needs of the troops and the home front.
In his Fourteen Points, President Wilson called for
free trade and the right of Europeans to self-determination.
What did the Allies hope to gain in negotiating the 1919 peace treaty in Paris?
Disarmament and punishment for Germany
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge strongly opposed the Treaty of Versailles because he
feared the League of Nations would interfere with American autonomy in foreign policy matters.
The United States failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and join the League of Nations because
President Wilson would not compromise on the terms of the treaty.
Which of the following events describes the American Red scare of 1919 and 1920?
A reaction to U.S. labor unrest, Russian bolshevism, and a flurry of terrorist attacks
How did the U.S. Supreme Court rule in the case of Schenck v. United States (1919)?
It ruled that Charles Schenck’s actions posed a clear and present danger to the nation in the time of war.

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