Role Development & Nursing Management Quiz 1

Leadership definition
the process of influencing people to accomplish goals

key concepts related to leadership are influence, communication, group process, goal attainment, and motivation.

guiding, directing, teaching, motivating to set and achieve goals

management definition
coordination and integration of resources through planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling to accomplish specific institutional goals and perspectives

resource coordination and integration to accomplish specific goals

professionalism definition
an approach to an occupation that distinguishes it from being merely a job

focuses on service as the highest ideal

follows a code of ethics and is seen as a lifetime commitment

Nursing and management
Responsible for directing the work of professionals & nonprofessionals to achieve
desired outcomes of:
-Patient care
-Unit & Organizational Goals

Can use leadership skills to be effective & successful

Influenced by external & internal forces:
-Internal to the organization
-External to the organization

Influences on Management
Demand to Reduce Errors

Cultural & Generational Differences:
-Immigrant populations
-Aging patients & nurses

-Evidence-based practice
-Electronic health Records
-Robotics & Remote Care

Management Challenges
Managers must balance interests of Administrators & staff members in new health care systems

Focus on cost & efficiency in order for the organization to compete &

The Silent Generation

mainly retired

can still be working

may be volunteering (many women were prior nurses)

parents of these people were in their prime in the roaring 20s, these people were much calmer

means of communication: chain of command, letter writing, telephone, in person, email

baby boomers
post war babies

biggest technology resistance

Gen X

smaller generation…BIRTH CONTROL

video games and computer age

described as slackers…independent thinkers and very impatient…very productive


big on electronic communication, less face to face communication

more flexibility in work is expected

leadership styles

autocratic leadership
Concerned with task accomplishment

Makes decisions alone

Exercises power with coercion

this form of leadership is needed in emergency situations

democratic leadership
Primary concern with human relations & teamwork

Fosters communication & collaboration

this form of leadership is used in unit projects

Laissez-faire leadership
Permissive, abstains from leading


everyone is running in circles and this is the least effective form of leadership

bureaucratic leadership
Depends on rules & policies

Trusts neither followers or self; relates impersonally

there is a time and place for this type of leadership

formal leadership
Practiced by a nurse with legitimate authority that is described in a job description

ex. CNO, supervisor

informal leadership
Exercised by a staff member who does not have specified management role or job description.

Informal. experiences nurses

trait theory of leadership
inborn traits of successful leaders

leaders are born to be leaders; old school theory

Behavioral theory of leadership
leaders made through education, training, and life experience

everyone has it in them to be a leader

Contemporary theories of leadership
1. situational leadership:
-Managers adapt their leadership style based on the situation & the follower

2. Transactional leadership:
-Leaders are successful to extent that they understand & meet needs of followers & use incentives to enhance loyalty & performance

3. Transformational Leadership:
-Foster follower’s inborn desire to pursue higher values; generate commitment to vision of organization rather than themselves

4. Servant Leadership:
-Leadership originates from desire to serve & that in course of serving one is called to lead; other’s needs take priority.
-dont need recognition; leading through service

authentic leaders
Connect to pressures of front-line staff

Are passionate about creating quality work environment

Generate energy to do the impossible

emotional leaders
Have emotional intelligence & social competence

Maintain a positive environment

Emphasize importance of emotions & relationships in success

aware of others emotional needs

characteristics of successful leaders
1. Energy
2. Enthusiasm
3. Commitment
4. Ability to inspire others to commit to goals

these effective leaders understand that they need followers, popularity is not leadership-results are, leaders are visible and set examples, leadership is not rank but responsibility

functions of nurse managers

-Process of coordinating the work to be done

-Process of getting the organization’s work done

-Establishing standards of performance
-Measuring performance
-Evaluating performance
-Providing feedback

Leadership vs. Management
Are you one, the other, or a combination of both?
-one can be a good leader and a poor manager of resources
-one can be a good manager of resources and not much of a leader of people

Does it depend on the situation?
-a leader focuses on the people
-a manager focuses on the systems and structure

How does it change over time?

Nothing can give you experience but time

A Leader is………
-Anyone who uses interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish a specific goal
-To achieve consensus within a group about its goals, and facilitate accomplishment of goals
-focused on human relationship aspects

A Manager is……….
-An employee who is responsible and accountable for efficiently accomplishing the goals of the organization
-Directly responsible for maintaining standards of care,
managing fiscal resources, and developing staff.
-focused on task accomplishment

3 skills needed for leading
1. diagnosing:
-involves being able to understand the situation and the problem to be solved or resolved. This is a cognitive competency.

2. Adapting:
-involves being able to adapt behaviors and other resources to match the situation. this is a behavioral competency.

3. Communicating:
-used to advance the process in a way that individuals can understand and accept. this is a process competency.

4 skill sets needed by good leaders
1. self awareness:
-ability to read one’s own emotional state and be aware of one’s own mood and how this affects staff relationships

2. self-management:
-ability to take corrective action so as not to transfer negative moods to staff relationships

3. Social-awareness:
– an intuitive skill of empathy and expressiveness in being sensitive and aware of the emotions and moods of others

4. Relationship management:
– use of effective communication with others to disarm conflict, and the ability to develop the emotional maturity of team members

interpersonal process of participation

giving people the authority, responsibility, and freedom to act on their expert knowledge and skills

5 interwoven aspects of process
1. the leader
2. the follower
3. the situation
4. the communication process
5. the goals

5 behaviors correlated with leadership excellence
1. challenging the process: going above the status quo to search for opportunities, experiment, and take risks to achieve goals

2. inspiring shared vision

3. enabling others to act

4. modeling the way

5. encouraging the heart

leadership vision and trust
leadership is founded on trust…this is the glue that binds the employees and the leader together

followers expect leaders to provide a sense of vision and sense of direction with standards for achieving goals

leadership do’s and don’ts
Do: Energy and trustworthiness

Don’ts: untrustworthiness and insensitivity

task behavior
element that goes into creating a leadership style

the extent to which leaders organize and define roles; explain activities; determine where, when, and how tasks are going to be accomplished; and endeavor to get work accomplished

relationship behavior
element that goes into creating leadership style

the extent to which leaders maintain personal relationships by opening communication and providing psycho-emotional support and facilitating behaviors.

feminist leadership perspective
characterized for a concern for family, community, and culture democratic power style and the emphasis is on importance of establishing relationships, maintaining connections with others, and deriving strength from empowering others women tend to be more flexible, value cooperation, connectedness, and relationships

attitudinal leadership theories
5 types of leadership or management styles based on concern for production (task) and concern for people (relationships)

1. impoverished: uses minimal effort to get the work done

2. Country club: emphasizes attention to the needs of people to effect satisfying relationships

3. Authority-obedience: strives for efficiency in operations

4. organizational man: works on balancing the necessity to accomplish the task with maintaining morale

5. team: promotes work accomplishment through a common cause, leading to trust and respect

situational theories
the theory or style that is the best all depends on the situation at hand.

the leader needs to diagnose the situation and see what is needed for his followers

contingency theory
as situations become more complex, leadership is difficult. So, take these three factors and their play in the situation to determine how you will lead.

1. Leader-member relations:
– refers to the type and quality of the leaders personal relationships with followers

2. Task Structure:
– means how structured the group’s assigned task is

3. Position power:
-refers to power that is conferred on the leader by the organization as a result of the assigned jobs

how appropriately a given leaders style interrelates with a given situation.

two aspects: ability and willingness

job ability is based on the amount of past job experience, job knowledge, ability to solve problems, ability to take responsibility, and ability to meet deadlines

willingness means being willing to take responsibility and have a positive attitude toward accepting the obligation to complete a task

transactional leader
leader or manager who functions in a caregiver role and is focused on day-to-day operations

transformational leader
leader who motivates followers to perform to their full potential over time by influencing a change in perceptions and by providing a sense of direction

you must:
1. create a vision
2. build a social architecture that provides meaning for employees
3. sustain organizational trust
4. recognize the importance of building self esteem

quantum leadership
contemporary definitions of leadership describe leadership as being the result of a relationship between leaders and followers where a distinct set of competencies is used to allow the relationship to achieve shared goals.

this is complex and requires nurses to be creative and flexible

clinical leadership
staff nurse behaviors that provide direction and support to clients and the health care team in the delivery of patient care.

factors central for successful nursing leadership
-formal and informal power
-access to information and resources
-opportunity to grow from new challenges
-supportive organizational cultures in which nurses are valued for their expertise
– visibility, responsiveness, a passion for nursing, and business astuteness shown by nurse leaders
-respectful and collaborative teamwork
– adequate compensation representing value

styles of followership
– activist

effective followers are an asset to be nurtured, developed, and valued. effective followers contribute to organizational success.

leadership and management implications
1. leadership is important to nurses because of the size of the profession. nurses make up the largest single health care occupation and on that is experiencing critical shortages.

2. nursing’s work is complex, often conducted in complex settings. tremendous changes in nursing have occurred in the past 25 years.

3. nurses enter the practice of nursing by licensure, but they come from a variety of educational backgrounds.

Current issues and trends
baby boomers are growing older…the “2030 problem”

make chronic illness and long-term care a huge economic burden

4 key aging shocks:
1. uncovered costs of prescription meds
2. uncovered medical care costs
3. private insurance costs for the medigap
4. costs of longterm care

the management process
3 categories of the management process:

1. practices that give executives the knowledge they need
– “what needs to be done?”
– “What is right for the enterprise?”

2. Practices that help executives convert knowledge to action
– develop action plans
-took responsibility for decisions
-took responsibility for communicating
-focused on opportunities, not problems

3. Practices that ensure that the whole organization feels responsible and accountable
– they run productive meetings
– they think and say “We” not “I”

management mind sets
reflective mind set: Managing self

analytic mind set: managing organizations

worldly mind set: managing context

collaborative mind set: managing relationships

action mind set: managing change

4 steps of the management process
1. planning
2. organizing
3. coordinating or directing
4. controlling

determining the long-term and short-term objectives and the corresponding actions that must be taken to achieve these objectives

strategic planning
more broad-ranged, this approach means determining the overall purposes and directions of the organizations

often focuses on mission, vision, and major goal identification

tactical planning
more short- ranged, this type means determining the specific details of implementing broader goals.

examples are projected planning, staffing planning, and marketing plans

3 types of errors creating planning flaws
1. errors of the fact: the plan is based on misinformation

2. Errors in assumption: the plan is based on incorrect assumptions

3. errors of logic: the plan is based on faulty reasoning

planning flaws carry over into organizing, directing, and controlling activities

mobilizing the human and material resources of the institution to achieve organizational objectives

closely follows the planning process; referred together as planning and organizing

managerial function establishing direction and then influencing people to follow that direction

aka leading

motivating and leading personnel to carry out the desired actions

includes binding together, unifying, and harmonizing the activity and effort of various personnel

comparing the results of work with predetermined standards of performance and taking corrective action when needed

this means ensuring that the results are as desired and, if they are not up to standards, then taking some action to modify, remediate, or reverse variances.

two roles of the nurse
1. the caregiver
2. the integrator

bedside nurse is the caregiver role

integrator nurse is a complementary function that arises from nursing’s central positioning in the day-to-day coordination of service delivery and central location at the hub of information flow regarding care and service delivery.

blended care
manager in nursing perform discrete and important functions that provide an environment and climate to facilitate delivery of client services

emotional intelligence
the management of emotions that is foundational for organizational health and its four components of strategy, capability, viability, and spirit.

the nature of managerial work
managers work at an unrelenting pace at activities characterized by brevity, variety, and discontinuity. managers are strongly action oriented

managers handle exceptions and perform regular work, such as ritual and ceremonial duties, negotiation, and processing of soft information linking the organization to its environment

managers prefer oral communication

“judgement” and “intuition” describe the procedures managers use to scheule time, process information, and make decisions.

important managerial skills
developing peer relationships
carrying out negotiations
motivating subordinates
resolving conflicts
establishing information networks and disseminating information
making decisions in conditions of extreme ambiguity

1. the people 2. the information 3. the action

contingency management theory
considered to be a leadership theory but also works with management

basic principle is that managers need to consider the situation and all its elements when making a decision

managers need to act on the key situational aspects with which they are confronted

systems management theory
helps managers to recognize their work as being embedded within a system and to better understand what a system is.

changing one aspect of a system inevitably effects the whole system

uses the following concepts:
-organization, wholeness, control, self-regulation, purposiveness, environment, boundaries, equilibrium, steady state, feedback

complexity management theory
the focus is the behavior over time of certain complex and dynamically changing systems

the concern is about the predictability of the behavior of systems that under certain conditions change in irregular and unpredictable ways, are unstable, and move further away from starting conditions unless stopped by an overriding constraint

stable zone: a disturbed system returns to the initial state

unstable zone: any small disturbance leads to movement away from the starting point and further divergence

the area between starting and divergence is called chaotic behavior…this refers to systems that have behavior with certain regularity yet defy prediction based on that regularity yet defy prediction based on that regularity…ex. weather

chaos management theory
behavior that is unpredictable in spite of certain regularities

chaos has become a concept of complexity theory

Humanizing Nursing communication theory
a nursing theory describing the manner of communicating that acknowledges the unique characteristics of the holistic human being

interpersonal communication
communication between 2 or more individuals involving face to face interaction while all parties are aware of the others on and ongoing basis

nonverbal communication
unspoken, this communication is composed of affective or expressive behavior

persuasion, negotiation, and bargaining
persuasion: the conscious intent by one individual to modify the thoughts or behaviors of others

negotiation: dialogical discussion between two or more parties to arrive at an agreement about some issue

bargain: to make a series of offers and counteroffers about what each party will do, give, receive, and so on, until an agreement is reached to the satisfaction of all.

spiritual assessment
information needed by nurses resides within each patient, and the professional nurse seeks to use the patient’s own definition in developing individual plans of care

spiritual care
interpersonal communication. it exists in the relationship between the caregiver and the care recipient

a dimension of all human beings that is relational in nature, with a higher being and/or with other human beings

may include spiritual and religious practices, perhaps within an organized faith community

verbal communication
includes both written and verbal communication

one technique used for interpersonal effectiveness in groups, collaborative teams, and interdisciplinary work situations

useful when an authoritarian leadership style is not appropriate and the nurse has to convince colleagues to work together

management strategies in times of disaster
1. get on the scene to lead, decide, and show compassion

2. chose your channels carefully because normal flows ofter are disrupted because phone and power lines have been destroyed

3. stay focused on the business

4. have a contingency and disaster plan in place

5. improvise, but from a strong foundation of values, preparation, and training

spirituality and communication
nurses should be responsible for only five dimensions:
– beliefs

the definition of spirituality that is relevant to a particular patient can be found only within that person

spiritual care is defined as interpersonal communication

Humanizing Nursing Communication Theory (HNCT)
it is proposed that if health care personnel, especially nurses, are regarded in a manner that acknowledges all characteristics of human beings, then these personnel with tend to regard the patients, clients, peers, and professional colleagues in a similar manner

when communicating, you should trust, self-disclose, give feedback, and listen

communication model with bad news
nurse/ other health care provider -> message (bad news) -> patient/ client

nurses can be the victim when people “blame the messenger”

you must “humanize”: to recognize the individuals human characteristics and to address the presented health care issues with respect and dignity

10 characteristics of interpersonal communication
1. communication is unavoidable and inevitable when people are aware of one another

2. both the sender and the receiver of “meaning” must be present

3. each person assumes roles of sender and receiver

4. the choices that a person makes reflect the degree of that persons interpersonal communication competencies

5. the sender and the receiver are interdependent

6. success requires mutual needs to communicate

7. establishes and defines the nature of the relationship between the people involved

8. means by which we confirm and validate self

9. since it depends on behaviors, we must be satisfied with degrees of mutual understanding

10. it is irreversible and unrepeatable and almost always function in a context of change

Group roles
suggesting possibilities
taking notes
summarizing group progress

disruptive roles:
-name calling

group readiness
4 stages:
-forming: group needs direction in defining task goals and objectives as opposed to personal goals

-storming: more willingness to accept group goals and objectives even with a difference in opinion

-norming: greater agreement on the task goals as the group develops cohesiveness and adjusts to the group and task

-performing: members are performing as one and willingly perform the task

current issues and trends with communication in the workplace
-the hostile workplace
-spirituality in practice
-teaching communication

Role of Leaders vs. Managers Leaders attempt to guide or influence others- beliefs, opinions, behavior Managers coordinate resources- people, time & supplies Authority of Leaders vs. Managers Managers have defined authority, leaders may not WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Charge Nurse An expanded staff nurse role with increased responsibility and the function of liaison to the nurse manager. Clinical Nurse Leader A lateral integrator of care responsible for a specified group of clients within a microsystem of the health …

What is *leadership*? A process of influence by which the leader influences others *toward goal achievement* *Formal* leader A person is *in a position of authority* or in a sanctioned, assigned role within an organization *that connotes influence*, such as …

leadership influences or inspires actions and goals or others doesnot require position of authority leadership WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Do the right thing leadership part …

Nightingale Patient and Environment with the nurse manipulating the environment to enhance the patient recovery Believed nursing was a calling and the nurse is expected to care for the spiritual needs of the patient Henderson Emphasizing the empathetic understanding “If …

Leadership is the ability to influence, guide, or direct others Leadership focuses on relationships, using interpersonal skills to persuade others to work toward a common goal WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out