Robinson R22 Helicopter Emergency Procedures

Air Restart Procedure
1. Mixture – full rich.
2. Primer (if installed) – down and locked.
3. Throttle – closed, then cracked slightly.
4. Actuate starter with left hand.

Ditching – Power Off
1. Follow same procedure as for power failure over land until contacting water.
2. Apply lateral cyclic when aircraft contacts water to stop blades from rotating.
3. Release seat belt and quickly clear aircraft when blades stop rotating.

Ditching – Power On
1. Descend to hover above water.
2. Unlatch doors.
3. Passenger exit aircraft.
4. Fly to safe distance away from passenger to avoid possible injury by blades.
5. Switch off battery and alternator.
6. Roll throttle off into overtravel spring.
7. Keep aircraft level and apply full collective as aircraft contacts water.
8. Apply left lateral cyclic to stop blades from rotating.
9. Release seat belt and quickly clear aircraft when blade stop rotating.

Electrical Fire in Flight
1. Master Battery Switch – Off.
2. Alt Switch – Off.
3. Land immediately.
4. Extinguish fire and inspect for damage.

Caution – Low RPM warning system and governor are inoperative with master battery and alternator switches both off.

Engine Fire During Startup on Ground
1. Cranking – Continue and attempt to start which would suck flames and excess fuel through carburettor into engine.
2. If engine starts, run at 50-60% RPM for a short time, shut down and inspect for damage.
3. If engine fails to start, shut off fuel and master battery switch.
4. Extinguish fire with fire extinguisher, wool blanket or dirt.
5. Inspect for damage.

Fire in Flight
1. Enter autorotation.
2. Master Battery Switch – Off (If time permits)
3. Cabin Heat – Off (If installed and time permits)
4. Cabin Vent – In (If time permits)
5. If engine is running, perform normal landing and immediately shut off fuel valve.
6. If engine stops running, shut off fuel valve and execute autorotation landing.

Governor Failure
If the engine RPM governor malfunctions, grip throttle firmly to override the governor, then switch governor off. Complete flight using manual throttle control.

INADVERTENT ENCOUNTER with MODERATE, SEVERE or EXTREME TURBULANCE
If the area of turbulence is isolated, depart the area; otherwise, land the helicopter as soon as practical.

Land as soon as practical
Land at the nearest airport or other facility where emergency maintenance may be performed.

Land Immediately
Land on the nearest clear area where a safe normal landing can be performed. Be prepared to enter autorotation during the approach, if required.

Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust During Forward Flight
1. Failure is usually indicated by nose right yaw which cannot be corrected by applying left pedal.
2. Immediately enter autorotation.
3. Maintain at least 70 KIAS if practical.
4. Select landing site, roll throttle off into overtravel spring and perform autorotation landing.

Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust During Hover
1. Failure is usually indicated by nose right yaw which cannot be stopped by applying left pedal.
2. Immediately roll throttle off into overtravel spring and allow aircraft to settle.
3. Raise collective just before touchdown to cushion landing.

Maximum Glide Distance Configuration
1. Airspeed approximately 75 KIAS
2. Rotor RPM approximately 90% (97% in autorotation)
3. Best glide ratio is about 4:1 or one nautical mile per 1500 Feet AGL.

Power Failure
A power failure may be caused by either an engine or drive system failure and will usually be indicated by the low RPM horn.

Power Failure – Above 500 Feet AGL
1. Lower collective immediately to maintain RPM and enter normal autorotation.
2. Establish a steady glide at approximately 65 KIAS.
3. Adjust collective to keep RPM in green arc or apply full down collective if light weight prevents attaining above 97%.
4. Select landing spot and, if altitude permits, manoeuvre so landing will be into wind.
5. A restart may be attempted at pilot’s discretion if sufficient time is available.
6. If unable to restart, turn off unnecessary switches and shut off fuel.
7. At about 40 Feet AGL, begin cyclic flare to reduce rate of descent and forward speed.
8. At about 8 Feet AGL, apply forward cyclic to level ship and raise collective just before touch down to cushion landing. Touch down in level attitude with nose straight ahead.

Power Failure – Below 8 Feet AGL
1. Apply right pedal as required to prevent yawing.
2. Allow aircraft to settle.
3. Raise collective just before touchdown to cushion landing.

Power Failure – Between 8 Feet and 500 Feet AGL
1. Takeoff operation should be conducted per the hight velocity diagram from the R22 Pilot’s Operating Handbook.
2. If power failure occurs, lower collective immediately to maintain rotor RPM.
3. Adjust collective to keep RPM in green arc or apply full down collective if light weight prevents attaining above 97%.
4. Maintain airspeed until ground is approached, then begin cyclic flare to reduce rate of descent and forward speed.
5. At about 8 Feet AGL, apply forward cyclic to level ship and raise collective just before touchdown to cushion landing. Touch down with skids level and nose straight ahead.

Power Failure – Drive System
A drive system failure may be indicated by an unusual noise or vibration, nose right or left yaw, or decreasing rotor RPM while engine RPM is increasing.

Power Failure – Engine
An engine failure may be indicated by a change in noise level, nose left yaw, oil pressure light or decreasing engine RPM.

RIGHT ROLL in LOW “G” CONDITION
Gradually apply aft cyclic to restore positive “G” forces and maintain rotor thrust. Do not apply lateral cyclic until positive “G” forces have been established.

Tachometer Failure
1. If rotor or engine tach malfunctions in flight, use remaining tach to monitor RPM. If it is not clear which tach is malfunctioning or both tachs malfunction, allow governor to control RPM and land a soon as practical.

Note – Each tach, the governor and the low RPM warning horn are on separate circuits. Either the battery or the alternator can independently supply power to the tachs. A special circuit allows the battery to supply power to the tachs even if the master battery is off.

UNCOMMANDED PITCH, ROLL or YAW RESULTING from FLIGHT in TURBULANCE
Gradually apply controls to maintain rotor RPM, positive “G” forces and to eliminate sideslip. Minimize cyclic control inputs in turbulence, do not over control.

Warning / Caution – CARBON MONOXIDE
Indicates elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in cabin. Open nose and door vents and shut off heater. If hovering, land or transition to forward flight. If symptoms of CO poisoning (headache, drowsiness, dizziness) accompany light, land immediately.

Warning / Caution Lights – ALT
Indicates low voltage and possible alternator failure. Turn off non essential electrical equipment and switch ALT off and back on after one second to reset over voltage relay. If light stays on land as soon as practical. Continued flight without functioning alternator can result in loss of tachometer, producing a hazardous flight condition.

Warning / Caution Lights – BRAKE
Indicates rotor brake is engaged. Release immediately in flight or before starting engine.

Warning / Caution Lights – CLUTCH
Indicates clutch actuator circuit is on, either engaging or disengaging clutch. When switch is in the ENGAGE position, light stays on until belts are properly tensioned. Never take off before light goes out.

Note – Clutch light may come on momentarily during run-up or during flight to retention belts as they warm up and stretch slightly. This is normal. if, however, the light flickers or comes on in flight and does not go out with 10 seconds, pull CLUTCH circuit breaker and land as soon as practical. Reduce power and land immediately if there are other indications of drive system failure (be prepared to enter autorotation). Inspect drive system for a possible malfunction.

Warning / Caution Lights – GOV OFF
Indicates engine RPM throttle governor is off.

Warning / Caution Lights – LOW FUEL
Indicates approximately one gallon of useable fuel remaining for all aluminium fuel tanks or 1.5 gallons for bladder-style tanks. The engine will run out of fuel after approximately 5 minutes at cruise power for aircraft with all-aluminium tanks or ten minutes with bladder-style tanks.

Caution – Do not use fuel caution light as a working indication of fuel quantity.

Warning / Caution Lights – LOW RPM & CAUTION LIGHT
A horn and an illuminated caution light indicate that rotor RPM may be below safe limits. To restore RPM, immediately roll throttle on, lower collective and in forward flight, apply aft cyclic. Horn and caution light are disabled when collective is fully down.

Warning / Caution Lights – MR CHIP
Indicates metallic particles in main rotor gearbox.

Note – if light is accompanied by any indication of a problem such as noise, vibration or temperature rise, land immediately. If there is no other indication of a problem, land as soon as practical.

Break-in fuzz will occasionally activate chip lights. If no metal chips or silvers are found on detector plug, clean and reinstall (tail rotor gearbox must be refilled with new oil). Hover for at least 30 minutes.
If chip light comes on again, replace gearbox before further flight.

Warning / Caution Lights – MR TEMP
Indicates excessive temperature of main rotor gearbox.

Note – if light is accompanied by any indication of a problem such as noise, vibration or temperature rise, land immediately. If there is no other indication of a problem, land as soon as practical.

Break-in fuzz will occasionally activate chip lights. If no metal chips or silvers are found on detector plug, clean and reinstall (tail rotor gearbox must be refilled with new oil). Hover for at least 30 minutes.
If chip light comes on again, replace gearbox before further flight.

Warning / Caution Lights – OIL
Indicates loss of engine power or oil pressure.
Check engine tach for power loss. Check oil pressure gauge and if pressure gauge loss is confirmed, land immediately. Continued operation without oil pressure will cause serious engine damage and engine failure may occur.

Warning / Caution Lights – START-ON
Indicates starter motor is engaged. If light does not go out when ignition switch is released from start position, immediately pull mixture to idle cut-off and turn master switch off. Have starter motor serviced.

Warning / Caution Lights – TR CHIP
Indicates metallic particles in tail rotor gearbox.

Note – if light is accompanied by any indication of a problem such as noise, vibration or temperature rise, land immediately. If there is no other indication of a problem, land as soon as practical.

Break-in fuzz will occasionally activate chip lights. If no metal chips or silvers are found on detector plug, clean and reinstall (tail rotor gearbox must be refilled with new oil). Hover for at least 30 minutes.
If chip light comes on again, replace gearbox before further flight.

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