Responding to Emergencies – test 1

Barriers to action
Reasons for not acting or for hesitating to act in an emergency situation.

Citizen responder
A layperson (someone who does not have special or advanced medical training or skill) who recognizes an emergency and decides to act.

Emergency
A situation requiring immediate action.

Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel
Trained and equipped community-based personnel who provide emergency care for ill or injured victims and who are often dispatched through a local emergency number.

Emergency medical services (EMS) system
A network of community resources and medical personnel that provides emergency care to victims of injury or sudden illness.

Emergency medical technician (EMT)
A person who has successfully completed a state approved emergency medical technician training program. The levels of EMTs are the EMT Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic.

First aid
Immediate care given to a victim of injury or sudden illness until more advanced care can be obtained.

First responder
A person trained in emergency care that may be called on to give such care as a routine part of his or her job.

Good Samaritan laws
Laws that protect people who willingly give first aid without accepting anything in return.

Injury
Damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force, such as a blow, a fall, a collision, an electrical current or temperature extremes.

Life-threatening emergency
An illness or injury that impairs a victim’s ability to circulate oxygenated blood to all the parts of his or her body.

Non-life-threatening emergency
A situation that does not have an immediate impact on a victim’s ability to circulate oxygenated blood, but still requires medical attention.

Sudden illness
A physical condition requiring immediate medical attention.

Consent
Permission to give care, given by the victim to the rescuer.

Emergency action steps
Three basic steps you should take in any emergency: CHECK— CALL—CARE.

Signs of life
Normal breathing or movement.

Consent
Permission to give care, given by the victim to the rescuer.

Direct contact transmission
Occurs when infected blood or body fluids from one person enter another person’s body at a correct entry site.

Disease transmission
The passage of a disease from one person to another.

Implied consent
Legal concept that assumes a person would consent to receive emergency care if he or she were physically able to do so.

Indirect contact transmission
Occurs when a person touches objects that have the blood or body fluid of an infected person, and that infected blood or body fluid enters the body through a correct entry site.

Personal protective equipment
The equipment and supplies that help prevent the rescuer from directly contacting infected materials.

Standard precautions
Safety measures taken to prevent exposure to blood and body fluids when giving care to ill or injured persons.

Airway
The pathway for air from the mouth and nose to the lungs.

Arteries
Large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.

Body system
A group of organs and other structures that work together to carry out specific functions.

Bone
A dense, hard tissue that forms the skeleton.

Brain
The center of the nervous system; controls all body functions.

Cells
The basic units of all living tissue.

Heart
A muscular organ that circulates blood throughout the body.

Lungs
A pair of light, spongy organs in the chest that provide the mechanism for taking oxygen in and removing carbon dioxide during breathing.

Muscle
A fibrous tissue that is able to contract, allowing and causing movement of organs and body parts.

Nerve
A part of the nervous system that sends impulses to and from the brain and all body parts.

Organ
A collection of similar tissues acting together to perform specific body functions.

Pulse
The beat you feel with each heart contraction.

Skin
The tough, supple membrane that covers the surface of the body.

Spinal cord
A bundle of nerves extending from the brain at the base of the skull to the lower back; protected by the spinal column.

Tissue
A collection of similar cells that act together to perform specific body functions.

Veins
Blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from all parts of the body to the heart.

Head-tilt/chin-lift technique
Technique used to open a victim’s airway by pushing down on the forehead while pulling up on the bony part of the jaw.

Signs of life
Normal breathing or movement.

Respiratory (Major Structures)
Airway and lungs

Respiratory (Primary Function)
Supplies the body with oxygen
and removes carbon dioxide
through breathing

Respiratory (How the system works with other body systems)
Works with the circulatory system
to provide oxygen to cells; controlled by the nervous system

Circulatory (Major Structures)
Heart, blood and blood vessels

Circulatory (Primary Function)
Transports nutrients and oxygen
to body cells and removes waste products

Circulatory (How the system works with other body systems)
Works with the respiratory system
to provide oxygen to cells; works in conjunction with the urinary and digestive systems to remove waste products; helps give skin color; controlled by the nervous system

Nervous (Major Structures)
Brain, spinal cord and nerves

Nervous (Primary Function)
One of two primary regulatory systems in the body; transmits
messages to and from the brain

Nervous (How the system works with other body systems)
Regulates all body systems through a network of nerves

Musculoskeletal (Major Structures)
Bones, ligaments, muscles and tendons

Musculoskeletal (Primary Function)
Provides body’s framework; protects internal organs and other underlying structures; allows movement; produces heat; manufactures blood components

Musculoskeletal (How the system works with other body systems)
Provides protection to organs and structures of other body systems; muscle action is controlled by the nervous system

Integumentary (Major Structures)
Skin, hair and nails

Integumentary (Primary Function)
An important part of the body’s
communication network;
helps prevent infection and dehydration; assists with temperature regulation; aids in production of certain vitamins

Integumentary (How the system works with other body systems)
Helps to protect the body from
disease-producing organisms; together with the circulatory system, helps to regulate body temperature; under control of the nervous system; communicates sensation to the brain through the nerves

Endocrine (Major Structures)
Glands

Endocrine (Primary Function)
Secretes hormones and other substances into blood and onto skin

Endocrine (How the system works with other body systems)
Together with the nervous system coordinates the activities of other systems

Digestive (Major Structures)
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder and liver

Digestive (Primary Function)
Breaks down food into usable form to supply the rest of the body with energy

Digestive (How the system works with other body systems)
Works with the circulatory system to transport nutrients to the body

Genitourinary (Major Structures)
Kidneys and bladder
Uterus and genitalia

Genitourinary (Primary Function)
Removes waste from the circulatory system and regulates water balance
Performs the process of sexual reproduction

Cranial cavity
Located in the head. It contains the brain and is protected by the skull.

Spinal cavity
Extending from the bottom of the skull to the lower back. It contains the spinal cord and is protected by the bones of the spine (vertebrae).

Thoracic cavity
Located in the trunk. It contains the heart, lungs and other important structures. It is protected by the rib cage and the upper spine.

Abdominal cavity
located in the trunk between the diaphragm and the pelvis. It contains many organs, including the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, stomach, kidneys and spleen.

Pelvic cavity
located in the pelvis, the lowest part of the trunk. It contains the bladder, rectum and reproductive organs.

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