Respiratory System Anatomy Review

Upper Respiratory System
Filters, warm, and moisten the incoming air. It cools and removes water of the outgoing air.

Upper Respiratory System Anatomy
Nose, Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses, and Pharynx

Lower Respiratory System
directs and guide air

Lower Respiratory System Anatomy
Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus, Bronchioles, Small Bronchioles, and Alveoli

Major Function of the Respiratory System
Provides a big surface area for gas exchange between air and blood, moves air to and from the lungs, protects the surface, produces sound, and detects smells.

Respiratory Defense System
Protects against contaminating debris or pathogen from the incoming air.

Respiratory Mucosa
Lines the respiratory tract

The cilia of the Respiratory Mucosa
Sweeps mucus and trapped debris or microorganism toward the pharynx. Constantly cleans the respiratory surface

The Lamina Propria
Layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium.

Nose
the main passageway for air entering the respiratory system.

Nasal Conchae
Produces air turbulence. Directs air towards the nasal septum. Made up of Superior, Middle, and Inferior meatuses.

Paranasal Sinuses
Keep the nasal cavity moist and clean

Pharynx
A chamber shared by respiratory and digestive systems.

Pharynx Division
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx

Nasopharynx
located between the soft palate and internal nares

Oropharynx
extends between the soft palate and base of the tongue

Laryngopharynx
narrow and is the entrance to the larynx and esophagus

Palate
separates the nasal and oral cavity, makes the floor of the nasal cavity

Glottis
a narrow opening of the larynx

Larynx
Surrounds and protects the glottis, consists of three unpaired and three small paired cartilages

Large Larynx Cartilages
Epiglottis, Thyroid, and Cricoid

Epiglottis Cartilage
composed of elastic cartilage, prevents liquid and food from entering the respiratory tract by folding over glottis during swallowing.

Thyroid Cartilage
composed of hyaline cartilage, also known as the Adam’s apple

Cricoid Cartilage
composed of hyaline cartilage, provides support, protects the glottis and the entrance of the trachea.

Vestibular and Vocal Ligaments
extend between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages

Small Larynx Cartilages
Cuneiform, Corniculate, and Arytenoid

Cuneiform Cartilage
wedge shaped

Corniculate Cartilage
horn shaped, function in the opening and closing of the glottis and production of sound.

Arytenoid Cartilage
ladle shape, involved in the opening and closing of the glottis.

Vocal Folds
contain vocal ligaments, air causes vibrations which produces sound.

Vestibular Folds
prevents objects from entering the glottis

Phonation
sound produced at the larynx

Articulation
modification of sound by the tongue, teeth, and lips

Trachea
also called windpipe, tough flexible tube, branches to form the right and left primary bronchi

Tracheal Cartilage
composed of hyaline cartilage, supports the trachea, moon shaped

Trachealis Muscle
connects the end of each tracheal cartilage

Primary Bronchi
The first branches of the trachea. There are two a right and a left one for each lung.

Hilus
Medial groove where pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics enter lung

The Bronchial Tree
Branching pattern of bronchi and bronchioles

Bronchioles
contains thick layers of smooth muscle

Bronchodilation
the enlargement of airway diameter, happens during sympathetic activation

Bronchoconstriction
the narrowing of airway diameter, happens during parasympathetic activation.

Asthma
extreme bronchoconstriction

The Lungs
pair of organs housed in the rib cage above the diaphragm, they are separated by the heart.

The Right Lung
divided by two fissures (horizontal and oblique), three lobes (superior, middle, and inferior), short and fat

The Left Lung
divided into two lobes (superior and inferior) by one fissure (oblique), long and skinny.

Cardiac Notch
accommodates the heart on the left lung

Alveoli
air sacs, each lung has about 150 million, gives the lung the spongy look, gas exchange occurs in their walls.

Alveolar ducts
connects multiple individual alveoli

Alveolar sac
a chamber that connects individual alveoli

The Pleura
Visceral, Pleural fluid, and Parietal

Visceral Pleura
covers the outer surface of the lung

Pleural Fluid
contain within the pleural cavity, coats and reduces fiction, keeps the visceral and parietal moving together

Parietal Pleura
Inner surface of the thoracic wall, covers the diaphragm and mediatstinum

Alveolar Capillaries
dilate when alveolar oxygen levels are high and constrict when levels are low

Type I Pheumocytes
squamous epithelial cells; thin; at the site of gas exhange

Type II Pheumocytes
produces surfactant

Surfactant
oily secretion, reduces the surface tension in the alveolar surface, without it the alveoli would collapse

Respiratory membrane
thin membrane of the alveoli where gas exchange occurs

Three Layers of the Respiratory Membrane
Alveolar epithelium, Fused basal laminae, and Capillary endothelium

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function of respiratory system exchange of gases between atmosphere, blood, and cells pulmonary ventilation inspiration/expiration, brings air in from atmosphere WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample external …

DIVIDED INTO TWO UPPER AND LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACTS UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT 1. SPHENOIDAL SINUS 2.FRONTAL SINUS 3.NASAL CAVITY 4.PHARYNX WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample LOWER RESPIRATORY …

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Pulmonary Ventilation the movement of air into and out of the lungs. More simply called ventilation or breathing External Respiration Gas exchanges to and from the pulmonary circuit blood that occur in the lungs (oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading) …

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