Rapid Review Pharmacology

Absence seizures
Ethosuximide

Acute gout attack
NSAIDs, colchicine, glucocorticoids

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)
All-trans retinoic acid

ADHD
Methylphenidate, CBT, atomoxetine

Alcoholism
Disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone, supportive care

Alcohol withdrawal
Long-acting benzodiazepines

Anorexia
Nutrition, psychotherapy, mirtazapine

Anticoagulation during pregnancy
Heparin

Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue
Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine)

B12 deficiency
Vitamin B12 supplementation (work up cause with Schilling test)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia
α1-antagonists, 5α-reductase inhibitors, PDE-5 inhibitors

Bipolar disorder
Mood stabilizers (e.g., lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine), atypical antipsychotics

Breast cancer in postmenopausal woman
Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

Buerger disease
Smoking cessation

Bulimia nervosa
SSRIs

Candida albicans
Topical azoles (vaginitis); nystatin, fluconazole, caspofungin (oral/esophageal); fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B (systemic)

Carcinoid syndrome
Octreotide

Chlamydia trachomatis
Doxycycline (+ ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection),
erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants)

Chronic gout
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., allopurinol, febuxostat)

Chronic hepatitis B or C
IFN-α (HBV and HCV); ribavirin, simeprevir, sofosbuvir
(HCV)

Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Imatinib

Clostridium botulinum
Antitoxin

Clostridium difficile
Oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin

Clostridium tetani
Antitoxin

CMV
Ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir

Crohn disease
Corticosteroids, infliximab, azathioprine

Cryptococcus neoformans
Fluconazole (in AIDS patients)

Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis
Mesna

Depression
SSRIs (first-line)

Diabetes insipidus
Desmopressin (central); hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

Diabetes mellitus type 1
Dietary intervention (low carbohydrate) + insulin replacement

Diabetes mellitus type 2
Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if
refractory)

Diabetic ketoacidosis
Fluids, insulin, K+

Enterococci
Vancomycin, aminopenicillins/cephalosporins

Erectile dysfunction
Sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil

ER ⊕ breast cancer
Tamoxifen

Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication
Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

Haemophilus influenzae (B)
Rifampin (prophylaxis)

Generalized anxiety disorder
SSRIs, SNRIs (first line); buspirone (second line)

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)
Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids

Heparin reversal
Protamine sulfate

HER2/neu ⊕ breast cancer
Trastuzumab

Hyperaldosteronism
Spironolactone

Hypercholesterolemia
Statin (first-line)

Hypertriglyceridemia
Fibrate

Immediate anticoagulation
Heparin

Infertility
Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene

Influenza
Oseltamivir, zanamivir

Kawasaki disease
IVIG, high-dose aspirin

Legionella pneumophila
Macrolides (e.g., azithromycin)

Long-term anticoagulation
Warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban

Malaria
Chloroquine, mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)

Malignant hyperthermia
Dantrolene

Medical abortion
Mifepristone

Migraine
Abortive therapies (e.g., sumatriptan, NSAIDs); prophylaxis (e.g., propranolol, topiramate, CCBs, amitriptyline)

Multiple sclerosis
Disease-modifying therapies (e.g., β-interferon, natalizumab); for acute flares, use IV steroids

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
RIPE (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent
C. trachomatis)

Neisseria meningitidis
Penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)

Neural tube defect prevention
Prenatal folic acid

Osteomalacia/rickets
Vitamin D supplementation

Osteoporosis
Calcium/vitamin D supplementation (prophylaxis);
bisphosphonates, PTH analogs, SERMs, calcitonin,
denosumab (treatment)

Patent ductus arteriosus
Close with indomethacin; open or maintain with PGE
analogs

Pheochromocytoma
α-antagonists (e.g., phenoxybenzamine)

Pneumocystis jirovecii
TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patient)

Prolactinoma
Cabergoline/bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

Prostate adenocarcinoma/uterine fibroids
Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

Prostate adenocarcinoma
Flutamide

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Antipseudomonal penicillins, aminoglycosides, carbapenems

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic)
Sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol

Rickettsia rickettsii
Doxycycline, chloramphenicol

Schizophrenia (negative symptoms)
Atypical antipsychotics

Schizophrenia (positive symptoms)
Typical and atypical antipsychotics

SIADH
Fluid restriction, IV hypertonic saline, conivaptan/tolvaptan, demeclocycline

Sickle cell disease
Hydroxyurea (inc fetal hemoglobin)

Sporothrix schenckii
Itraconazole, oral potassium iodide

Stable angina
Sublingual nitroglycerin

Staphylococcus aureus
MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins); MRSA: vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, ceftaroline

Streptococcus bovis
Penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia),
vancomycin (meningitis)

Streptococcus pyogenes
Penicillin prophylaxis

Temporal arteritis
High-dose steroids

Tonic-clonic seizures
Levetiracetam, phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine

Toxoplasma gondii
Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

Treponema pallidum
Penicillin

Trichomonas vaginalis
Metronidazole (patient and partner)

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
Carbamazepine

Ulcerative colitis
5-ASA preparations (e.g., mesalamine), 6-mercaptopurine, infliximab, colectomy

UTI prophylaxis
TMP-SMX

Warfarin reversal
Fresh frozen plasma (acute), vitamin K (chronic)

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