Public Health and Health Advocacy Project

Each week you will use the Weekly Guide to guide you through the process of creating a hypothetical, community health advocacy project due in Week Six. The following breakdown represents each week’s part: • In Week One, you select an aggregate and write questions to help you identify areas of strength and of need. • In Week Two, you focus on describing the characteristics of your aggregate and writing an action plan on how you would apply each of Christoffel’s three stages as an advocate for the aggregate.

• In Week Three, you apply the three levels of prevention to your aggregate’s health concern and select the best theoretical model to help you address your advocacy concerns. This model will guide your project in Week Six. • In Week Four, you design a data collection tool that will be used with your aggregate population. • In Week Five, you formulate two outcome goals that are specific to your aggregate. • In Week Six, you design a hypothetical, community health advocacy project based on your completed Weekly Guide.

You must submit your completed Weekly Guide in Week Six with your project. Week One Part One Select an aggregate with a health concern that interests you. You will use this aggregate throughout the class as a basis for your Community Health Advocacy Project due Week Six. Aggregate chosen: Pregnant Teens Think of some questions you would like to find answers to regarding your aggregate. Write questions that help you identify areas of strength and of need. 1. What is the educational impact for children born to teens? 2. What is the socioeconomic impact to the teens and their children?

3. What can the parents of the teens do to support them during the pregnancy? Week Two Part Two Describe characteristics of the aggregate you chose in Part One. Include the following: • Definitions of community and aggregate with support from the literature • Community is defined as a locality-based entity, composed of systems of formal organizations reflecting society’s institutions, informal groups, and aggregates. • An aggregate is a subgroup of the community population who share one or more personal or environmental characteristics • Differences between aggregate and community.

• By defining aggregate and community earlier in the paper, the author will compare the selected aggregate, pregnant teens, in California State versus the United States • Identification and description of an aggregate • A health issue because it is associated with adverse educational, health, and economic outcomes for both mothers and children • Minimum of four current references in addition to the textbooks, dated from the last Three years Identify Christoffel’s three stages in a conceptual framework for advocacy. 1. Information 2. Strategy 3. Action.

Write a short action plan, in 350- to 600-words, on how you would apply each stage as an advocate for your aggregate. Action Plan: The author will identify the extent of teen pregnancy as a health problem from research reports, private sector, and government agencies to produce statistical data. • Every year 16 million females ages 15 to 19 give births accounting for 11% of all births globally (Porter & Holness, 2011). • Severity of occurrence is linked to adverse educational, health, and economic outcomes for both mothers and children (The National Campaign, 2012).

Stage Two: Strategy The author anticipates that the two ways to improve this health issue is by creating and implementing educational programs in the public and at school. The school may include in the curriculum that will give the teachers an opportunity to discuss the risk factors not only to the teens but also to the parents. The programs will provide opportunities for the teens to be engaged in supervised activities after school and help them understand their own sexual limits so they do not get into situations in which they may have unprotected sex and get pregnant.

Stage Three: Action Activities may include raising funds, join the local or state government to encourage education in school, and join organizations who are already addressing the issue of teen pregnancy. Such organizations are the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and community-based programs. CDC is expanding prevention resources through the president’s teen pregnancy initiative, which involves the office of adolescent health, administration for children and families, and office of population affairs.

CDC is also working to reach the Healthy People 2020 national objectives to reduce unintended teen pregnancy and improve adolescent health as well as recommending programs that reach teens that have been demonstrated to work, help parents communicate with their teens, and improve sexual and reproductive health service (CDC, 2012). Week Three Part Three The levels of prevention in epidemiology help provide a framework for health professionals to intervene and prevent disease, injury, or disability. Write a short description of the three levels of prevention. • Primary prevention is directed at preventing a problem before it occurs.

• Secondary prevention refers to early detection and prompt intervention during the period of early disease pathogenesis. • Tertiary prevention where the intervention begins once the disease is obvious and aims to interrupt the course of the disease reduce the amount of disability that might occur, and begin rehabilitation. Apply the three levels of prevention to your aggregate’s health concern. See below describes each level along with action plan. Continuous education is the key factor in the three levels of prevention Include a specific example of your initiative in action for each level.

1. Primary: The primary intervention for the selected aggregate is to stop them from getting pregnant at the first place. Primary intervention will include teaching the teens about sexuality, teaching about the negative impact from becoming pregnant. 2. Secondary: secondary prevention would be early interventions for the pregnant teens. Early intervention includes testing and treating the pregnant teen for STDs, providing adequate prenatal care, and treating for high blood pressure. Action plan will be to participate into organizations and join campaigns to raise funds so that teens can receive prenatal care and alleviate health complications.

Coordinate with the local health department and have community programs accessible to the teens. This will help offer wellness check up or screening for blood pressure, and giving information on healthy diet choices low in sodium diet. 3. Tertiary: Tertiary prevention address interventions that the author may place into the action plan for the teen after pregnancy. Offer continuous education on preventing additional adolescent pregnancies and address risk factors in school and in public.

Participate in campaign to discuss about future pregnancy and prevent morbidity in young mother and the newborn through adequate postnatal care and follow-up with the primary care physician. Select the best theoretical model that will help you answer, or provide the rationale for, why you asked the questions you did in Part One of the Weekly Guide. Consider the following questions: • What are the main concepts within the model? o Health Belief Model (HBM) is a comprehensive model used in preventing diseases and establishing health programs.

o The concepts are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficiency. o HBM is applicable to the pregnant teens because it addresses how they perceive the severity and benefits from becoming pregnant. • What about theory explains why you asked those questions. o Knowing that there are consequences and serious condition from having unplanned pregnancy, the concepts help the author ask those questions. o Concepts of the theory about the teens’ beliefs regarding severity and benefits made her ask those questions.

o The self-efficacy concept implies providing training, guidance, and positive enforcement. Engaging parents of the teen from the beginning builds up support and trust to the pregnant teen that her parents are there when she in need. Parents of the teen may continue educating the teen about pregnancy prevention for any future pregnancy. The part of the theory that explains why the author asked the above questions are basically the concepts, teens perception about health concern, and the theory itself because it helps develop health education strategies.

Week Four Part Four Design a data collection tool that can be used with your aggregate population. Make sure the tool contains the following: • Demographics—name, birth date, ethnicity, sex, education level, and so forth o Tool Name: Vinesh Data Pregnancy Survey Tool. For confidentiality, names and date of births were not disclosed.

The tool contained ethnicity, parents education levels, living area, support system in the house • The questions that you came up with in Part One and any others that you feel would apply o The tool contained questions from week one and additional questions that can help answer questions from week one.

• Two additional questions that would be consistent with the goals of Healthy People 2020 o What are some of the environmental factors linked with adolescent health outcomes? o What are the two important issues that influence how adolescent health should be approached? • Data from reliable sources that answer each of the questions you asked o Data were from the reliable source: The National Campaign Include data points with two levels of data for each— if you cannot find two points, a data gap exists. This was changed to the following information per instructor:

Data that correlates to the questions asked—either from week one, or from Healthy People 2020—is included. Two One data point — local, state, national, or international—are is included for each question. a = The data’s level B = The data Example: 1 a = Local B = 54% Obesity rate for 5th graders 2 a = Federal B = 19% Obesity rate for children over 12 Questions from Week One: 1 A: California B: Ranks at number 15 with 5% in proportion of teens 16 to 19 who are not enrolled in high school and are not high school graduate in the year 2010 2. A: California.

B: Ranks at number 30 with 23% of children under 18 living below the Federal poverty level in 2011 3. A: California B: Ranks at number 23 with 33% showing proportion of children under 18 living in families by a single parent in 2010. In the same year, California ranks at number 39 showing 36% of children under 18 living in households where no parent had full-time or year-round employment Week Five Part Five Formulate two outcome goals that are specific to your aggregate. Outcome Goal # 1: Reduce pregnancy rate caused by unplanned pregnancy 30% by the year 2013. Outcome Goal # 2:

Increase knowledge about causes of teen pregnancy by facilitating an educational program to the students at Natomas High School by the end 2013. Base your outcome goals on the data you collected in previous weeks. Each outcome goal must include an action verb, the result you expect, the target, and the time frame. Yes, the above goals contain the action verb, the result to expect, the target, and the time frame Consider the following questions: • What intervention needs to happen to meet your goals? o An educational program to the teens at Natomas High School. • Who would need to be influenced to enact the program?

o Sponsored by Target and National Institute of Health (NIH) o Giving grant that may be used for printing out brochures on teen pregnancy, giveaway incentives to the teens, and refreshment on the day of educational program • Would the cost for it be feasible? Why or why not? 1. Is cost effective because the capital expenditure for implementation is very small when it comes to saving lives. 2. Gives an opportunity and allows the community partnership to participate in the health promotion and not only help out with the grant but also help the educator financially.

Week Six Part Six Review the intervention you suggested to meet your outcome goals in Part Five. Consider the following question: • What are two formative—conducted during the progress of the program—and two summative—conducted taken at the end of the program—evaluation measures that could be used to evaluate your intervention? Formative: 1. Verbalizing during the educational program 2. Questioning strategies Summative: 1. End of educational program test 2. Rate decreased 40% by 2013 *Visit school every 4 months & continued teaching *Louvinia, clerk, told me the rate decreased by 40%.

Design a hypothetical, community health advocacy project based on your completed Weekly Guide. Deliverable examples include, a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation, a proposal for a project to a local board, organization, or a newspaper article. Include the following in your project: • The information from your Weekly Guide Yes, I used information from the weekly guide in the PowerPoint presentation • Projected effects of project success on public health policy o Teenage pregnancy prevention policy strategies (Comprehensive sexuality education, access to contraceptives and reproductive health care, and youth development).

o AFL program o TPPI o Advocate the programs and policies by participating, lobbying, attending conferences to show support, and join campaign o Encourage Natomas School Board to continue funding toward teenage pregnancy prevention program • At least four current references, dated within the last three years Yes, I had at least four current references within the last three years Note. All six parts of the weekly guide must be completed and submitted with your project to receive the total points.

Policies are a set of courses designed to influence decisions and determine actions by a specific group or organization.

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