Public Health 195 Exam 2 Study Guide

poor health services
All of the following are direct causes of undernutrition, EXCEPT:
a. inadequate dietary intake
b. illness
c. poor health services

pregnant and lactating women and children under 2
What groups are in need of proper nutrition the most?
a. pregnant women and children under 5
b. pregnant and lactating women and children under 3
c. pregnant and lactating women and children under 2

anemia
Iron fortification addresses which problem?
a. jaundice
b. anemia
c. diarrhea

promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months
Which of the following would be the most important way to improve the health of infants in rural communities of low income countries?
a. promote the introduction of complimentary foods at 3 months
b. promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months
c. promote the use of vitamin supplements at 1 year

investments in improving the health of women would not result in a substantial number of death and DALYs averted
All of the following are reasons that women’s health is important, EXCEPT:
a. women in many countries face a number of specific and serious health problems
b. investments in improving the health of women would not result in a substantial number of death and DALYs averted
c. women play especially important roles in their families, and when they are in poor health, it has important negative consequences on their family

hemorrhage
Which of the following health issues is the leading cause of maternal mortality?
a. pre-eclampsia
b. hemorrhage
c. obstetric fistula

obstetric fistula
Which of the following health issues has the most stigmatizing effect on women who have it?
a. pre-eclampsia
b. hemorrhage
c. obstetric fistula

South America
Which of the following regions has the highest rate of unsafe abortions?
a. Western Africa
b. South Asia
c. South America

increase women’s access to emergency obstetric care
Which of the following steps is essential to reducing maternal mortality from complications of pregnancy?
a. promote better nutrition in women
b. increase atenatal care
c. increase women’s access to emergency obstetric care

Sub-Saharan Africa
The highest risk of a woman dying in childbirth is in which region?
a. South Asia
b. Latin America and the Caribbean
c. Sub-Saharan Africa

iron deficiency
One of the most important nutritional concerns among women in low and middle income countries is:
a. vitamin D deficiency
b. vitamin B deficiency
c. iron deficiency

vaccinate against HiB and Pneumococcus
Which of the following is likely to have the biggest impact on reducing the death of children under five years in a low or middle income country?
a. vaccinate against HiB and Pneumococcus
b. vaccinate against hookworm
c. vaccinate against TB

distribution of zinc
If a flood were to occur in a low or middle income country, which of the following would contribute most to the reduction of child deaths by reducing the burden of diarrheal disease?
a. distribution of iron
b. distribution of zinc
c. distribution of iodine

Kangaroo Mother Care
Which of these is a promising way of helping otherwise healthy low birthweight babies to thrive in low income settings until they are strong enough to “develop on their own”?
a. keep them
b. Kangaroo Mother Care
c. In-patient hospital care

pneumococcal disease
Which of the following can be addressed through vaccination?
a. HIV
b. malaria
c. pneumococcal disease

mental illness and neglected tropical disease
Which of the following is better measured in DALYs, rather than mortality rates, to better reflect their burden of disease?
a. malaria and lower respiratory infections
b. TB and ischemic heart disease
c. mental illness and neglected tropical disease

pregnant women
Which of the following are especially at risk for malaria?
a. older adults
b. pregnant women
c. men working outside

indoor residual spraying, bed nets, and prompt diagnosis and treatment
Which of the following interventions would have the largest impact on reducing the burden of disease caused by malaria?
a. indoor residual spraying, bed nets, and prompt diagnosis and treatment
b. environmental measures
c. vaccination against malaria

HIV
In low and middle income countries, what has likely been the largest contributor to an increase in the incidence of TB?
a. TB drug resistance
b. HIV
c. a weakened TB program

hookworm
Which of the following has the highest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa?
a. ischemic heart disease
b. dengue fever
c. hookworm

60%
Which figure is closest to the share of communicable diseases in the total burden of disease in poor countries in Africa?
a. 20%
b. 40%
c. 60%

lower respiratory conditions
The leading cause of death among the communicable diseases for all age groups in low and middle income countries is:
a. lower respiratory conditions
b. HIV/AIDS
c. malaria

the spread of disease from animals to humans
A major source of emerging infectious diseases is:
a. people living in rural areas
b. urbanization
c. the spread of disease from animals to humans

hookworm and ascariasis
Two of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases are:
a. hookworm and ascariasis
b. onchocerciasis and trachoma
c. leprosy and lymphatic filariasis

cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders
What are among the most important noncommunicable health conditions that low and middle income countries face?
a. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders
b. cardiovascular disease, HIV, diabetes, and mental disorders
c. cardiovascular disease, malaria, cancer, and tobacco use

high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high body mass index
What are among the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
a. high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high body mass index
b. lack of physical activity, smoking, indoor air pollution
c. high cholesterol, underweight, infectious agents

tobacco control
What should be the first priority in preventing cancer worldwide?
a. preventing and treating infectious agents that cause caner
b. tobacco control
c. reducing air and water pollution

obesity
What is the most important risk factor for type ii diabetes?
a. obesity
b. smoking tobacco
c. low birthweight

they often begin at a young age and go on for a long time
What is one reason why mental disorders are an important contributor to the burden of disease?
a. they are the leading cause of death
b. they often begin at a young age and go on for a long time
c. there are no existing treatments

road traffic accidents
Which unintentional injuries cause the most deaths?
a. fires
b. road traffic accidents
c. poisoning

road traffic accidents
Men are three times more likely than women to die from which of the following?
a. road traffic accidents
b. fires
c. poisonings

frequent use of two-wheeled vehicles without helmets
Which of the following is an important risk factor for road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries?
a. airbags that deploy unnecessarily
b. frequent use of two-wheeled vehicles without helmets
c. distractions such as cell phones

5-10%
Unintentional injuries account for approximately what percentage of total deaths in low and middle income countries?
a. 20-25%
b. 30-35%
c. 5-10%

the Middle East and North Africa
Which region has the highest burden of unintentional injuries as a results of road traffic accidents?
a. South Asia
b. Latin America and the Caribbean
c. the Middle East and North Africa

South Asia
Which region has an exceptional share of death among females due to burns?
a. the Middle East and North Africa
b. South Asia
c. Sub-Saharan Africa

young children
What group or groups of people are most affected by measles in the aftermath of an emergency?
a. young children
b. pregnant women
c. volunteers providing aid services

they are at a greater risk for sexual violence than under normal circumstances
Why are women particularly vulnerable during a complex humanitarian emergency?
a. they are responsible for feeding their children as well as themselves
b. they are more susceptible to diarrheal diseases
c. they are at a greater risk for sexual violence than under normal circumstances

address noncommunicable diseases
Which of the following is NOT one of the most important steps that need to be taken within the first few days that people flee to a refugee camp?
a. establish a system of disease surveillance
b. provide food, water, shelter
c. address noncommunicable diseases

Sudan
Which country has a very large number of internationally displaced people?
a. Sudan
b. South Africa
c. Morocco

financing large public health projects in select countries
Which of the following is NOT one of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) main objectives?
a. financing large public health projects in select countries
b. disseminating knowledge through studies and reports about global health topics of importance
c. providing technical assistance in managing vaccine programs

providing healthcare services during natural disasters, humanitarian emergencies, or their aftermath
Doctors Without Borders (MSF) is a non governmental organization best known for:
a. training large numbers of healthcare workers in low and middle income countries
b. operating successful vaccination campaigns in low and middle income countries
c. providing healthcare services during natural disasters, humanitarian emergencies, or their aftermath

developing low cost drugs, vaccines, or medical devices
A common goal of public-private partnerships for health is:
a. building health care facilities in low and middle income countries
b. developing low cost drugs, vaccines, or medical devices
c. improving water and sanitation systems in low and middle income countries

global program to eradicate smallpox
Which of the following is a prominent example of a successful global cooperation in health?
a. global effort to reduce childhood malnutrition
b. global program to eradicate smallpox
c. widespread health sector reform efforts in low and middle income countries

preventing the reemergence of smallpox
Which of the following is NOT considered likely to be a major challenge that global health efforts will face in the future?
a. increasing understanding of certain diseases in order to develop or improve vaccines and treatments
b. financing long-term efforts to combat AIDS, malaria
c. preventing the reemergence of smallpox

WHO
Which organization has the objective of promoting “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health”?
a. CARE
b. USAID
c. WHO

UNICEF
Which is the specialized agency of the UN that focuses on promoting the well-being of children?
a. UNFPA
b. UNAIDS
c. UNICEF

The Rockefeller Foundation
Which foundation was instrumental in the development of public health schools?
a. The Ford Foundation
b. The Wellcome Trust
c. The Rockefeller Foundation

can be administered by community members
Which of the following is NOT considered an ideal characteristic of vaccines?
a. afforadable
b. confers lifelong immunity
c. can be administered by community members

tax credits for research and development
Which of the following is an example of a push mechanism to encourage research and development focused on the needs of low and middle income countries?
a. tax credits for research and development
b. increasing the use of vaccines already on the market
c. market assurance from the public sector

HIV can develop resistance to existing drugs
Anti-retroviral drugs that can control HIV and prevent the onset of AIDS already exist. Why do we need to continue developing HIV drugs?
a. the drugs cannot be used for children
b. the existing medication expire quickly and cannot be used
c. HIV can develop resistance to existing drugs

90%, 10%
What percentage of expenditure on research and development on heath is oriented toward high income and low and middle income countries respectively?
a. 50%, 50%
b. 90%, 10%
c. 80%, 20%

pharmaceutical companies do not think that these markets will produce a significant profit
Which of the following is a limitation or constraint to developing a new vaccine that would primarily benefit low and middle income countries?
a. pharmaceutical companies do not think that these markets will produce a significant profit
b. the initial cost of developing a vaccine candidate is very low, so the companies can only charge very low prices
c. we do not know enough about the microbes that cause infectious disease in low and middle income countries

in schools because children tend to harbor greater numbers of hookworms than others
If a human hookworm vaccine is successfully developed, it will like be administered:
a. in schools because children tend to harbor greater numbers of hookworms than others
b. in hospitals because individuals must go through the deworming procedure in hospitals before they can receive the vaccine
c. in mobile clinics because the affected population tend to live in very remote, rural areas

malaria
The only disease that has consistently attracted to substantial private sector investment in the discovery of new drugs and vaccines has been:
a. TB
b. hookworm
c. malaria

a person who is outside his or her country of nationality has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
What is a refugee?
a. a person who is outside his or her country of nationality and has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
b. a person who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border
c. a person who has migrated to another country
d. none of the above

a person who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border
What is an internally displaced person (IDP)?
a. a person who is outside his or her country of nationality and has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
b. a person who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border
c. a person who has left their home for another place within borders
d. none of the above

diarrheal diseases
What are the most significant health concerns in the early stages of a humanitarian emergency?
a. diarrheal diseases
b. traumatic injuries
c. mental health issues
d. access to care

hookworm and ascariasis
Two of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases are:
a. hookworm and ascariasis
b. onchocerciasis and trachoma
c. leprosy and lymphatic filariasis
d. onchocerciasis and ascariasis

infectious agents
What factor is most commonly associated with cancer deaths in low income countries?
a. indoor air pollution
b. infectious agents
c. outdoor air pollution
d. obesity

obesity
What is the most important risk factor for type ii diabetes?
a. obesity
b. smoking tobacco
c. low birthweight
d. excessive alcohol

drownings, fires
Children younger than five years in low and middle income countries account for a large percentage of deaths due to what two types of unintentional injuries?
a. poisoining, fires
b. drownings, fires
c. road traffic accidents, falls
d. poisonings, drownings

Sub-Saharan Africa
Neonatal mortality is highest in which region?
a. South Asia
b. Sub-Saharan Africa
c. Western Pacific
d. Eastern Mediterranean

pneumonia
Excluding neonatal disorders, which of the following is the leading cause of death in children under five years in low and middle income countries?
a. pneumonia
b. malaria
c. HIV/AIDS
d. diarrhea

oral rehydration therapy
Which of the following would be the most cost effective way to address illness from diarrheal disease in the short-run in a low or middle income country?
a. modern sanitation and the promotion of hygiene
b. vitamin supplementation
c. oral rehydration therapy
d. none of the above

neonatal period
The highest risk of an infant dying in low and middle income countries is:
a. perinatal period
b. neonatal period
c. infancy period
d. under-5 period

True
True or False? HIV is the virus that causes AIDS

False
True or False? More people die of HIV compared to Hepatitis C

True
True or False? Breastmilk has the highest concentration of HIV

females are at a higher risk for a number of health issues due to both biological and social reasons that can interact
Why can it be said that being born female is dangerous to your health?
a. females have a lower life expectancy at birth in most countries
b. females have higher rates of smoking and other bad health behaviors that lead to health issues
c. females are at a higher risk for a number of health issues due to both biological and social reasons that can interact

obstetric fistula
Which of the following health issues leads to the most stigmatizing effect on women?
a. obstetric fistula
b. eclampsia
c. sepsis
d. hemorrhage

iron deficiency
One of the most important nutritional concerns among women in low and middle income countries is:
a. vitamin A deficiency
b. vitamin B deficiency
c. iron deficiency
d. zinc deficiency

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