PTCB: Pharmacology for Technicians P. 16-18

Pharmacology
The scientific study of the action of drugs on a living system. A medication interacts with receptors and produces a biological response

Pharmacokinetics
Involves the absoption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (excretion) of the drug in a living system

Therapuetic Equivalence
When a Drug:
-contains the same chemical entity
-contains the same quantity of active ingredient
-is the same dosage form
-has the same route of administration

Drug-Drug Interaction
When one drug alters the action of another drug: interactions include addition, anatgonism, potentiation, and synergism

Addition
The combined effect of two drugs; it is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone

Antagonism
One drug works against the action of another drug

Potentiation
One drug increases or prolongs the effect of another drug; the total effect is greater than the sum of the effects of each drug alone (e.g., Vistaril and Demerol)

Synergism
The joint action of drugs in whcih their combined effect is more intense or longer in duration than the sum of the effects of two drugs

Drug-Disease Interaction
Various diseases may inhibit the absorption, metabolism, and elimination of different drugs. An example is taking decongestants if the patient has hypertension or diabetes.

Drug-Dietary Supplement Interaction
Many herbal and dietary supplements have developed drug interactions with prescription drugs. Vitamins, glucosamine-chondroitin, fish oil, coenzyme Q have interacted with warfarin. A total of 62% of herbal supplements used have had interactions with warfarin.

Drug-Over-The-Counter Drug Interactions
Various OTC medications may either increase or decrease the effects of a prescription medication. Ex) Aspirin can increase the effect of warfarin, and antacids can decrease the effects of cimetidine

Drug-Laboratory Interactions
Many drugs used today have demonstrated that they may have an effect on serum potassium and creatine levels in the body. These interactions can result in additional testing to detect abnormalities.

Drug-Nutrient Interactions
Poor nutritition may affect the metabolism of various drugs. Ex) When warfarin and vitamin K are taken simultaneously

Drug-Food Interactions
-Improved absorption occurs if the following drugs are taken with a fatt meal: ketoconazole, nitrofurantoin, and girseofulvin
-Decreased absorption occurs if the following drugs are taken with food: tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, etidronate, phenytoin, norfloxacin, zidovudine, levothyroxine, and didanosine
-Grapefruit juice affects the following drug metabolized by cytochrome P450: calcium channel blockers, estrogens, cyclosporine, midazolam and triazolam.
-Warfarin interacts with foods high in vitamin K, such as romaine lettuce and spinach. Warfarin users should consult a cardiologist or internist for a list of these foods

Drug-Related Problems
An even or situation involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with the optimum outcome. These drug-realted problems include an intreated indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, failure to receive a drug, overdosage, and dug use without an indication

Pregnancy Category A
Adequate studies in pregnant women have failed to show a risk to the fetus in the first trimester and there is no risk in later trimesters.

Pregnancy Category B
Animal studies have failed to show a risk to the fetus, but no adequate studies in pregnant women or animal studies have shown an adverse effect but human studies have not shown a risk to the fetus in the first trimester and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters.

Pregnancy Category C
Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate studies in humans, but the benefits may outweigh the risks.

Pregnancy Category D
Positive evidence of human fetal risk, but the benefits outweigh the risks.

Pregnancy Category X
Animal or human studies have shown fetal abnormalities or toxicity, and the risk outweighs the benefits.

Chemical Name
Determined by the chemical structure of the drug entity

Proprietary (Brand or Trade) Name
Assigned by the drug manufacturer and is protected through a patent

Nonproprietary (Generic) Name
Assigned to a medication and contains a word stem that has been issued by the U.S. Adopted Names Council.

Pharmacology Study of the biological effects of chemicals Pharmacotherapeutics Branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs (clinical pharmacology) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Preclinical Drug Trials …

Pharmacology The study of the biological effects of chemicals Drugs Chemicals that are introduced into the body to cause some sort of change WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Adverse Effects The undesired, unpleasant, or even dangerous results some drugs produce. Brand Name The name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Black Box warning Information printed on a drug package to alert prescribers to potential problems with the drug. Brand name The name under which the manufacturer markets a drug; also known as the trade name. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Which of the following is not a condition for a medication to be considered therapeutically equivalent? a. Can be administered by an approved route b. Same active ingredient c. Same dosage form d. Same strength or concentration a. Can be …

allergic reaction immune response related to prior exposure to the drug, re-exposure triggers an allergic response. Can range from mild itching to severe rash to anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening response characterized by broncho-spasm, laryngeal edema, and drop in BP …

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