Psychology Test 2 review Final Exam

Feelings of control over stressors
Choose one answer.
a. do not make a difference when it comes to extremely severe stressors like torture.
b. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be more affected by the stressor over the long term.
c. can make people feel worse because they believe they should have been able to change what happened.
d. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term
d. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.

A main symptom of PTSD is
Choose one answer.
a. depression.
b. development of stress-related diseases.
c. panic attacks when remembering the trauma.
d. reexperiencing of the traumatic event.
d. reexperiencing of the traumatic event.

In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors
Choose one answer.
a. are specified on Axis II.
b. are specified on Axis III.
c. are specified on Axis IV.
d. are not specified.
c. are specified on Axis IV.

Which of the following would most likely be a source of eustress?
Choose one answer.
a. Getting a divorce
b. Losing your job
c. Finding out that a loved one has cancer
d. Graduating from high school
d. Graduating from high school

A risk factor is
Choose one answer.
a. something in a person’s genetic makeup that makes him or her respond well to stress.
b. something in a person’s learning experiences that makes him or her thrill seekers.
c. something about the nature of a stressor that makes it worse for most people.
d. something in a person’s history that makes him or her more vulnerable to stress
d. something in a person’s history that makes him or her more vulnerable to stress.

Which of the following would be an example of direct therapeutic exposure?
Choose one answer.
a. Carol considered ways in which she could make her apartment safer.
b. Mandy visited the accident site.
c. John planned a new route to work.
d. Chris learned judo
b. Mandy visited the accident site.

What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?
Choose one answer.
a. There is a biological response to stress, but not to crisis.
b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
c. A stressor is an unexpected crisis.
d. There is no difference, these are just two words for the same thing.
b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.

Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when
Choose one answer.
a. the symptoms last for more than 2 weeks.
b. the symptoms begin within 6 months of the trauma.
c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
d. the trauma is an event out of the realm of normal life experience
c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.

Who is likely to have the most severe stress?
Choose one answer.
a. Anne, who is planning her wedding
b. Bill, who has a deadline the next day for an important project
c. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news
d. Lauren, who sees the clean-up of an accident and finds out later it involved one of her friends
c. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news

Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?
Choose one answer.
a. Preparing for the stressor
b. Minimizing the use of social support
c. Being uncertain as to how long the stressor will persist
d. Holding unrealistic expectations about the stressor
a. Preparing for the stressor

Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice. He doesn’t have any particular thoughts associated with this, he just becomes anxious if he doesn’t do it, because “something bad might happen.” Mark
Choose one answer.
a. has obsessive compulsive disorder.
b. has no disorder.
c. has an unusual type of specific phobia.
d. does not have obsessive compulsive disorder.
a. has obsessive compulsive disorder.

Betty is hyper-aware of such bodily sensations as heart rate and respiration rate. When she perceives heart or breathing as getting faster she becomes afraid that she is having a heart attack. These thoughts make her symptoms worse and she has a panic attack. Betty’s pattern of thinking best illustrates
Choose one answer.
a. the psychoanalytic theory of panic.
b. the role of the locus coeruleus in panic.
c. the importance of perceived control in panic disorder.
d. cognitive theory of panic
d. cognitive theory of panic

Gradual exposure to feared cues is
Choose one answer.
a. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders.
b. a useful treatment for phobias but not other anxiety disorders.
c. an old treatment for anxiety disorders that is no longer used.
d. likely to make someone with an anxiety disorder worse in the long term.
a. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders.

Mrs. B. tells her psychologist, “I cannot leave a certain region around my home without having terrible fears. I am terribly worried when I am in a car or bus. I am afraid I will have another one of those terrifying experiences.” What disorder does Mrs. B probably have and what experience is she talking about?
Choose one answer.
a. The disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack.
b. The disorder is obsessive-compulsive disorder, the experience is an obsession.
c. The disorder is generalized anxiety disorder, the experience is anxiety.
d. The disorder is specific phobia, the experience is a panic attack.
a. The disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack.

Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school, and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber’s most likely diagnosis is
Choose one answer.
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. obsessive compulsive disorder.
c. generalized social phobia.
d. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
a. generalized anxiety disorder.

Nicole’s mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful and look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of
Choose one answer.
a. classical conditioning of a phobia.
b. operant conditioning of a phobia.
c. unconscious displacement of anxiety onto a phobic object.
d. vicarious conditioning of a phobia
d. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.

Harold’s panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writes Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. Which of the following drugs is Harold most likely to have been prescribed?
Choose one answer.
a. SSRIs
b. Benzodiazepines
c. Monamine oxidase inhibitors
d. Tricyclics
b. Benzodiazepines

According to the behavioral viewpoint, compulsions are repeated because
Choose one answer.
a. they are reflexive responses that can’t be controlled.
b. the act of engaging in the behavior is pleasurable.
c. they permit the expression of repressed urges.
d. they serve to reduce anxiety
d. they serve to reduce anxiety.

Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Martin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is
Choose one answer.
a. specific phobia, situation type.
b. social phobia.
c. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
d. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
a. specific phobia, situation type.

An evolutionary psychologist might say, “The unique physiological response in this disorder, involving fainting at the sight of the feared object, may have evolved because fainting might inhibit further attack from a predator.” What disorder is being discussed?
Choose one answer.
a. Social phobia
b. Agoraphobia with panic attacks
c. Blood-injection-injury phobia
d. Animal phobia
c. Blood-injection-injury phobia

In which of the following disorders must symptoms be present for at least 2 years in order for a diagnosis to be made?
Choose one answer.
a. Bipolar II disorder
b. Bipolar I disorder
c. Major depressive disorder
d. Dysthymia
d. Dysthymia

Bipolar disorder is to major depression as ________ is to ________.
Choose one answer.
a. dysthymia; cyclothymia
b. mania; hypomania
c. hypomania; mania
d. cyclothymia; dysthymia
d. cyclothymia; dysthymia

What are the two key moods involved in mood disorders?
Choose one answer.
a. Mania and depression
b. Anger and mania
c. Anger and depression
d. Sadness and anxiety
a. Mania and depression

Carleen comes to therapy because she is feeling sad. She says her she has often had periods of extreme sadness in the past and they typically last between 6 and 8 months. During those times she overeats, has trouble sleeping, feels exhausted all the time, and thinks a lot about dying. At other times, however, Carleen says she feels wonderful. During those times, which last about a week, she gets a lot done, feels as if she could do anything, talks a lot and quickly, doesn’t sleep but doesn’t feel tired. Carleen says her “up” times are great and have never caused her any trouble. Carleen’s most likely diagnosis is
Choose one answer.
a. major depressive disorder.
b. bipolar II.
c. dysthymia.
d. bipolar I.
b. bipolar II.

Angela has had several periods of extremely “up” moods. They last for a couple of weeks and she has gotten into trouble several times. During those times she doesn’t sleep, spends way too much money, gets involved in bad business decisions, talks quickly and thinks even more quickly and believes she can do anything. The best diagnosis for Angela is
Choose one answer.
a. manic disorder.
b. bipolar I disorder.
c. bipolar II disorder.
d. cyclothymic disorder
b. bipolar I disorder.

A diagnosis of bipolar I disorder indicates that the person has met DSM IV-TR criteria for
Choose one answer.
a. an episode of mania and a major depression.
b. an episode of hypomania and a major depression.
c. an episode of mania or major depression.
d. an episode of mania
d. an episode of mania

Sean describes himself as having hardly ever been happy. He occasionally feels okay, but it never lasts more than a day or so. He has trouble sleeping, doesn’t eat much, and feels like nothing will ever change in his life. He says this has been going on for as long as he can remember. The best diagnosis for Sean is
Choose one answer.
a. dysthymia.
b. major depressive disorder.
c. cyclothymia.
d. bipolar II.
dysthymia

Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is
Choose one answer.
a. cyclothymia.
b. schizoaffective disorder.
c. recurrent dysthymia.
d. bipolar I disorder
a. cyclothymia.

Two months after her husband’s death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses would apply to Connie?
Choose one answer.
a. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
b. Postpartum depression
c. Connie does not have a disorder.
d. Dysthymia
c. Connie does not have a disorder.

George, a 22-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three years, he has had problems sleeping and he seems to always overeat. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?
Choose one answer.
a. Chronic adjustment disorder with depressed mood
b. Dysthymia
c. Major depressive disorder
d. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
c. Major depressive disorder

Harold’s panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writes Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. Which of the following drugs is Harold most likely to have been prescribed?
Choose one answer.
a. SSRIs
b. Tricyclics
c. Monamine oxidase inhibitors
d. Benzodiazepines
d. Benzodiazepines

Feelings of control over stressors
Choose one answer.
a. do not make a difference when it comes to extremely severe stressors like torture.
b. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.
c. can make people feel worse because they believe they should have been able to change what happened.
d. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be more affected by the stressor over the long term
d. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be more affected by the stressor over the long term

Which of the following would be an example of anxiety?
Choose one answer.
a. Julie jumped when she saw the snake.
b. Hilda dreaded walking home alone.
c. Carl was certain that the food was poisoned.
d. The voices in Paul’s head told him he should be afraid.
b. Hilda dreaded walking home alone.

A hypomanic episode is best described as a
Choose one answer.
a. mild manic episode.
b. short manic episode.
c. manic episode characterized by inactivity.
d. manic episode followed by symptoms of a mild depression.
a. mild manic episode.

All of the following are somatoform disorders EXCEPT
Choose one answer.
a. hypochondriasis.
b. somatization disorder.
c. conversion disorder.
d. fugue disorder.
d. fugue disorder.

Jacob and Matt both flunk their math test. Jacob says to his friends that there is no point in his continuing in the course because the teacher just doesn’t like him. Matt says he is going to drop the course because he is just stupid in math. According to the reformulated learned helplessness theory,
Choose one answer.
a. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.
b. Matt is more likely to feel helpless than Jacob.
c. Jacob is more likely to become depressed than Matt.
d. Jacob is more likely to feel helpless than Matt.
a. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.

Why has the term “multiple personality disorder” been replaced with “dissociative identity disorder”?
Choose one answer.
a. The old term was often used to refer to both schizophrenia and DID, thus a new term was needed to end this confusion.
b. The word “multiple” suggested the presence of more identities than were commonly observed.
c. Fully developed personalities are not present in DID, just varying expressions of different aspects of the patient’s personality.
d. A new diagnostic term was wanted to remove some of the stigma associated with the old term and its presentation in the media.
c. Fully developed personalities are not present in DID, just varying expressions of different aspects of the patient’s personality.

Kristie is talking to a career counselor at college. She suddenly announces that it is pointless to discuss jobs, when she knows that her face is incredibly hideous due to her huge number of acne scars. The counselor is surprised, because, while she can barely see a couple of scars at Kristie’s hairline, they were not noticeable until Kristie pointed them out. It is probable that Kristie suffers from
Choose one answer.
a. conversion disorder.
b. depersonalization disorder.
c. body dysmorphic disorder.
d. hypochondriasis
c. body dysmorphic disorder.

What do all mood disorders have in common?
Choose one answer.
a. The presence of anxiety.
b. They are at least 6 months in duration.
c. The presence of irrational thoughts.
d. They are characterized by emotional extremes.
d. They are characterized by emotional extremes.

Marks: 1
Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as
Choose one answer.
a. psychogenic amnesia.
b. multiple personality disorder.
c. conversion hysteria.
d. neurasthenia
b. multiple personality disorder.

After the Northridge earthquake in Southern California, during which part of a heavily traveled freeway collapsed, many people noted that it was lucky that this tragedy occurred on a holiday as there were few people on the road that early Monday morning. Does this “it could it have been worse” sentiment moderate the effects of this natural disaster?
Choose one answer.
a. No, finding a “benefit” during such a tragedy is morbid.
b. Yes, such feelings have been shown to increase the negative impact of comparable natural disasters.
c. Yes, finding a “benefit” such as this has been shown to aid in adapting to such stressors.
d. No, cognitive factors have consistently been shown to have no impact on stress responses
c. Yes, finding a “benefit” such as this has been shown to aid in adapting to such stressors.

Ryan has diabetes but has no trouble functioning. One day, his wife informs him that she is leaving him. Ryan suddenly develops terrible pain in his back, to the point he is unable to get out of bed. His wife agrees to stay for “a while” to take care of him. Ryan probably has
Choose one answer.
a. somatization disorder.
b. pain disorder associated with psychological factors.
c. pain disorder associated with both psychological factors and a general medical condition.
d. body dysmorphic disorder
b. pain disorder associated with psychological factors.

No matter what prisoners try to do, they cannot escape. Eventually, they become passive and depressed. This illustrates the central idea in the ________ theory of depression.
Choose one answer.
a. attribution
b. depressogenic schema
c. learned helplessness
d. behavioral
c. learned helplessness

Nicole’s mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful and look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of
Choose one answer.
a. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.
b. classical conditioning of a phobia.
c. operant conditioning of a phobia.
d. unconscious displacement of anxiety onto a phobic object.
a. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.

Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text?
Choose one answer.
a. Vacation
b. Sleep deprivation
c. Spaceflight
d. Death of a spouse
Vacation

According to the behavioral viewpoint, compulsions are repeated because
Choose one answer.
a. the act of engaging in the behavior is pleasurable.
b. they serve to reduce anxiety.
c. they are reflexive responses that can’t be controlled.
d. they permit the expression of repressed urges
b. they serve to reduce anxiety.

Childhood suicide
Choose one answer.
a. is common.
b. has been declining since the early 1980’s.
c. is one of the top ten causes of death for children in the United States.
d. most commonly is seen in victims of early onset schizophrenia.
c. is one of the top ten causes of death for children in the United States.

Jessica spends much of her day counting or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate
Choose one answer.
a. compulsions.
b. obsessions.
c. both obsessions (the counting and saying words) and compulsions (the checking).
d. neither obsessions nor compulsions.
a. compulsions.

Who is likely to have the most severe stress?
Choose one answer.
a. Anne, who is planning her wedding
b. Bill, who has a deadline the next day for an important project
c. Lauren, who sees the clean-up of an accident and finds out later it involved one of her friends
d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news
d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news

Which of the following is an example of a COGNITIVE diathesis for depression?
Choose one answer.
a. Neuroticism
b. Optimism
c. Attributing negative events to internal causes
d. Attributing negative events to external causes
c. Attributing negative events to internal causes

Recent estimates suggest that about 50 percent of those with DID have
Choose one answer.
a. only two identities.
b. two alters, in addition to the host identity.
c. over ten identities.
d. as many as two hundred identities.
c. over ten identities.

Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Martin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is
Choose one answer.
a. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
b. social phobia.
c. specific phobia, situation type.
d. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
c. specific phobia, situation type.

How does dysthymia compare to major depressive disorder?
Choose one answer.
a. Symptoms are much more severe than in major depressive disorder.
b. Symptoms change from day to day, with lots of days with normal functioning in between dysthymic episodes.
c. There are many more symptoms required to meet dysthymia than to meet major depressive disorder.
d. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder
d. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder

Distress is
Choose one answer.
a. seen when a situation is ambiguous.
b. a response to a happy life event.
c. the same thing as eustress.
d. a response to a negative event
d. a response to a negative event

After learning of her father’s death, Sophia felt dazed and confused but still retained her sense of self. When speaking of her response to the news, she said she felt like she was in a movie watching the events happening to her. Despite this strange feeling, she understood what was happening and did the things that she needed to do. What can be said of Sophia’s response to her father’s death?
Choose one answer.
a. Her response is not typical and suggests that she is suffering from acute stress disorder.
b. She experienced an instance of derealization.
c. She had a psychotic break.
d. She experience an instance of depersonalization
b. She experienced an instance of derealization.

Virtual reality environments
Choose one answer.
a. permit the use of a combination of exposure therapy, participant modeling, and stress inoculation.
b. have been shown to be effective in treating agoraphobia.
c. appear to be more effective in treating phobias than live exposure to the feared stimulus.
d. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting.
d. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting.

Octavia has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID). She has seventeen different “alters,” which are strikingly different from her host personality. Some of her alters are not full personalities, but fragments and memories. Some of the alters are children. What aspect of this case is unusual?
Choose one answer.
a. It is unusual for a person with DID to have seventeen alters.
b. It is unusual for a person with DID to have alters that are very different from the host personality.
c. It is unusual for a person with DID to have fragmentary alters.
d. No aspect of this case is unusual.
d. No aspect of this case is unusual.

Stress tolerance is
Choose one answer.
a. a biological attribute.
b. a pressure.
c. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.
d. a crisis for most people
c. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.

Individuals with somatoform disorders
Choose one answer.
a. intentionally fake their illnesses in order to obtain some special treatment.
b. generally have a physical cause for their illness.
c. believe that their symptoms are real and serious.
d. usually have little concern over their state of health
c. believe that their symptoms are real and serious.

Coping strategies are
Choose one answer.
a. efforts to deal with stress.
b. efforts to avoid conflict.
c. the same thing as eustress.
d. the dynamic interaction between the types of stressors and the person.
a. efforts to deal with stress.

Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with an antidepressant?
Choose one answer.
a. The drug may trigger a manic episode
b. Individuals with bipolar disorder may or may not exhibit symptoms of depression
c. The drugs used to treat unipolar disorders do not alter the activity of the neurotransmitters that are affected in bipolar disorder
d. The combination of antidepressants and lithium is likely to be lethal
a. The drug may trigger a manic episode

Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD
Choose one answer.
a. have not been made.
b. indicate that most people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD.
c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.
d. find that it rarely exists as a comorbid condition.
c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.

Gerard became amnesic, wandered away from home and assumed a completely new identity as a shoe salesman. He suffers from
Choose one answer.
a. dissociative fugue.
b. dissociative identity disorder.
c. malingering identity disorder.
d. depersonalization.
a. dissociative fugue.

wo months after her husband’s death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses would apply to Connie?
Choose one answer.
a. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
b. Dysthymia
c. Postpartum depression
d. Connie does not have a disorder
d. Connie does not have a disorder

Which of the following will lower a soldier’s risk of developing PTSD?
Choose one answer.
a. No prior experience in combat
b. Believing strongly in the goals of the combat
c. Whether he or she is in combat in a familiar country or not
d. Whether he or she talks about experiences
b. Believing strongly in the goals of the combat

When Charissa was a young child, she stepped on a bee and was stung. Since that time, she has been terrified of flying insects and runs away if she sees any. According to the classical conditioning model, the bee was
Choose one answer.
a. an unconditioned stimulus.
b. an unconditioned response.
c. a conditioned response.
d. a conditioned stimulus.
d. a conditioned stimulus.

All of the following involve psychological disturbances that occur in response to an identifiable experience EXCEPT
Choose one answer.
a. adjustment disorder.
b. acute stress disorder.
c. depression.
d. post-traumatic stress disorder
c. depression.

Why do people with phobias continue to avoid the thing they fear?
Choose one answer.
a. Avoidance is reinforced by anxiety reduction.
b. There is something wrong with their flight or flight system.
c. They are cognitively unable to make any other decision due to their disorder.
d. Their low self-esteem causes them to choose not to fight their fear
a. Avoidance is reinforced by anxiety reduction.

The stress glucocorticoid that is produced in humans is called
Choose one answer.
a. adrenalin
b. estrogen
c. cortisol
d. repression
cortisol

The term “crisis” refers to
Choose one answer.
a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one’s ability to cope.
b. encountering a number of stressors simultaneously.
c. a period of especially acute stress.
d. any encounter that requires a readjustment of self concept
a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one’s ability to cope.

Which of the following is one of the seven primary types of anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-IV-TR?
Choose one answer.
a. Hypochondriasis
b. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
c. Dissociative fugue
d. Bipolar disorder
b. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is
Choose one answer.
a. schizoaffective disorder.
b. bipolar I disorder.
c. recurrent dysthymia.
d. cyclothymia.
d. cyclothymia.

Bipolar disorder is to major depression as ________ is to ________.
Choose one answer.
a. dysthymia; cyclothymia
b. cyclothymia; dysthymia
c. mania; hypomania
d. hypomania; mania
b. cyclothymia; dysthymia

Sara notices a lump on her side. She goes to her physician because she is worried that it is cancer. The physician sends her for a biopsy. During the three weeks between first noticing the lump and getting her results that it is not cancer, Sara was almost unable to function. She felt constant anxiety and thought constantly about having cancer. After she found out that she did not have cancer, Sara felt much better. Sara
Choose one answer.
a. has hypochondriasis.
b. has conversion disorder.
c. has somatization disorder.
d. has no mental disorder
d. has no mental disorder

The director of a city health department wants to know who is most likely to complete suicide in her city. The group with the highest risk is
Choose one answer.
a. teenagers, especially depressed girls.
b. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.
c. young women who were recently separated or divorced.
d. college-educated people.
b. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.

A lack of concern about a physical disability is characteristic of individuals with
Choose one answer.
a. conversion disorder.
b. hypochondriasis.
c. somatoform pain disorder.
d. somatization disorder
a. conversion disorder.

Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of
Choose one answer.
a. malingering.
b. hypochondriasis.
c. somatization disorder.
d. somatoform disorder
a. malingering.

Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is fine talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla’s most likely diagnosis is
Choose one answer.
a. social phobia.
b. specific phobia, situational type.
c. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
d. generalized social phobia
a. social phobia.

Marks: 1
Fear is a basic emotion that involves
Choose one answer.
a. concern about the future.
b. the activation of the “fight or flight” response.
c. negative thoughts, but not a change in physiological arousal.
d. a complex blend of negative mood and self-preoccupation.
b. the activation of the “fight or flight” response.

Marks: 1
In soap operas, characters often forget their past experience following some trauma. They don’t merely forget the traumatic event, they forget who they are, where they came from – they lose almost all memory of their lives. They then move to a new place and start a new identity. This would best be described as an instance of
Choose one answer.
a. anterograde amnesia.
b. dissociative fugue.
c. continuous amnesia.
d. generalized amnesia.
b. dissociative fugue.

Beck’s negative cognitive triad involves feeling negatively about
Choose one answer.
a. helplessness, hopelessness, and sorrow.
b. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.
c. one’s past, one’s present, and one’s future.
d. one’s family, one’s self, and one’s friends
b. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.

Marks: 1
When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself, watching herself struggle to catch her breath. Jill’s sense of not being part of herself is one of the symptoms of a panic attack known as
Choose one answer.
a. derealization.
b. depersonalization.
c. dissociative fugue.
d. personality disintegration.
b. depersonalization.

Neuroticism
Choose one answer.
a. is a tendency to experience negative mood states.
b. is simply another term for anxiety.
c. is a tendency to believe negative things about oneself.
d. is a tendency to feel anxious.
a. is a tendency to experience negative mood states.

ohn and Ira eat dinner together after work. Several hours later, each starts to feel nausea and stomach pains. John is a hypochondriac, Ira is not. Most likely:
Choose one answer.
a. both men will think that the food they ate made them sick.
b. John will think that he has stomach cancer and Ira will think the food he ate made him sick.
c. John will think the food he ate made him sick and Ira will not think anything at all.
d. Ira will think he has stomach cancer and John will think the food he ate made him sick.
b. John will think that he has stomach cancer and Ira will think the food he ate made him sick.

Marks: 1
Individuals who suffer from phobias
Choose one answer.
a. are likely to believe that their fear is justified.
b. suffer from uncued panic attacks.
c. are unlikely to have other psychological diagnoses.
d. avoid the feared stimulus.
d. avoid the feared stimulus.

Following a disaster, debriefing sessions
Choose one answer.
a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns.
b. are not necessary for experienced disaster workers.
c. tend to increase the anxiety felt by many victims.
d. should be conducted by professionals.
a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns.

A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder indicates that the person has experienced
Choose one answer.
a. an episode of mania.
b. an episode of mania or major depression.
c. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.
d. an episode of mania and an episode of major depression.
c. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.

Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurred last spring. It is now winter and Kelly’s depressive symptoms once again are consistent with major depressive disorder. Which of the following diagnoses should she be given?
Choose one answer.
a. Dysthymic disorder
b. Chronic major depressive disorder
c. Recurrent major depressive disorder
d. Recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern
c. Recurrent major depressive disorder

Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue?
Choose one answer.
a. Case studies provide more useful information.
b. Both disorders are relatively brief, preventing researchers from having ample time to systematically conduct full evaluations.
c. The diagnosis of both disorders is too controversial; until a consensus is reached as to whether there is a true “psychogenic” amnesia, further study is virtually impossible.
d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.
d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.

Marks: 1
An evolutionary psychologist might say, “The unique physiological response in this disorder, involving fainting at the sight of the feared object, may have evolved because fainting might inhibit further attack from a predator.” What disorder is being discussed?
Choose one answer.
a. Blood-injection-injury phobia
b. Agoraphobia with panic attacks
c. Social phobia
d. Animal phobia
a. Blood-injection-injury phobia

Evan is terrified because he is convinced that he has a terminal heart condition. He has consulted with several physicians about it who have found no evidence of any heart disease. Interestingly, Evan continues to feel terrified even when the doctors find no physical problem. His diagnosis is probably
Choose one answer.
a. somatization disorder.
b. pain disorder.
c. hypochondriasis.
d. conversion disorder.
hypochondriasis

Marks: 1
Independent life events are those that
Choose one answer.
a. only affect one area of a client’s functioning.
b. are out of the client’s control.
c. are linked causally to the behavior or personality of the client.
d. affect the client and not those around him or her
b. are out of the client’s control.

Marks: 1
Which of the following is most suggestive of dissociative identity disorder?
Choose one answer.
a. Grace’s feelings about James switch from positive to negative instantly.
b. Peter could not explain why he didn’t complete the project.
c. Delilah was never able to make up her mind.
d. Kyla could not recall where she had been or what she had done all day
d. Kyla could not recall where she had been or what she had done all day

Tara believes that it is extremely important to be clean. She cleans her kitchen and bathroom daily and the rest of the house at least once every few days. She uses antibacterial soap and sterile water to clean. She says she wants people to be able to eat off her floors. Tara is very proud of her house and the way she keeps it. She
Choose one answer.
a. has obsessive compulsive disorder.
b. has specific phobia, situational type.
c. generalized anxiety disorder.
d. has no disorder.
d. has no disorder.

People with hypochondriasis, like people with obsessive-compulsive disorder, have intrusive thoughts that cause them anxiety. The major difference is
Choose one answer.
a. in hypochondriasis, the thoughts are about one disease only, in obsessive-compulsive disorder the thoughts are about multiple diseases.
b. in hypochondriasis, the thoughts are seen as inappropriate and alien, in obsessive-compulsive disorder the intrusive thoughts are seen as appropriate and reasonable.
c. in hypochondriasis, the thoughts are seen as appropriate and reasonable, in obsessive-compulsive disorder the intrusive thoughts are seen as inappropriate and alien.
d. in hypochondriasis, the person knows the thoughts are coming from his or her own head and in obsessive-compulsive disorder, the person believes the thoughts are coming from someone else
c. in hypochondriasis, the thoughts are seen as appropriate and reasonable, in obsessive-compulsive disorder the intrusive thoughts are seen as inappropriate and alien.

Casey and Josh have both been bitten by strange dogs. Casey has a dog of his own at home that he loves. Josh has little experience with dogs. Which is likely to develop a phobia?
Choose one answer.
a. Both boys are likely to develop a phobia because of the traumatic nature of the event.
b. Casey is more likely to develop a phobia because his schema of dogs has been violated.
c. Casey is less likely to develop a phobia because he has had lots of earlier positive experiences with dogs.
d. It will depend on which boy is more sensitive to pain.
c. Casey is less likely to develop a phobia because he has had lots of earlier positive experiences with dogs.

Persistent and recurrent thoughts are
Choose one answer.
a. compulsions.
b. delusions.
c. hallucinations.
d. obsessions.
obsessions

Once a dissociative fugue ends, people
Choose one answer.
a. can remember everything that has happened to them.
b. remembers who they are but cannot remember their past.
c. can remember their past but cannot remember what happened during the fugue.
d. can remember their past but keep their new identity.
c. can remember their past but cannot remember what happened during the fugue.

Somatization disorder
Choose one answer.
a. involves multiple symptoms of at least four different types.
b. involves multiple symptoms involving one body part or function.
c. involves the fear of having multiple different diseases.
d. involves having pain in at least four different areas of the body
a. involves multiple symptoms of at least four different types.

The field of psychoneuroimmunology
Choose one answer.
a. focuses on the relationship between stress and mental illness.
b. explores the neurological basis of autoimmune conditions.
c. seeks to establish a link between psychological functioning and vulnerability to illness.
d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.
d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of major depressive disorder?
Choose one answer.
a. Bouts of anxiety
b. Considerable appetite and weight gain
c. Excessive fidgeting and an inability to sit still
d. Sleeping excessive amounts
a. Bouts of anxiety

Earl falls at work. The initial medical tests showed no major physical problems. However, Earl calls the next day and tells his boss that he is unable to use his right leg because it is paralyzed. He also informs his boss that he plans to sue the company. Earl most likely
Choose one answer.
a. has conversion disorder.
b. has somatization disorder.
c. has factitious disorder.
d. is malingering.
d. is malingering.

Sean describes himself as having hardly ever been happy. He occasionally feels okay, but it never lasts more than a day or so. He has trouble sleeping, doesn’t eat much, and feels like nothing will ever change in his life. He says this has been going on for as long as he can remember. The best diagnosis for Sean is
Choose one answer.
a. cyclothymia.
b. dysthymia.
c. major depressive disorder.
d. bipolar II.
b. dysthymia.

Which of the following is most characteristic of anxiety?
Choose one answer.
a. Increased heart rate
b. Avoidant behavior
c. Trembling
d. A desire to scream
b. Avoidant behavior

According to the text, the term “stress” will be used to refer to

Choose one answer.
a. only those external events in our lives that challenge us.
b. any positive demand made on an organism.
c. the effects of external stressors.
d. anything that makes us unhappy.

c. the effects of external stressors.

Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis differ because
Choose one answer.
a. in somatization disorder, people have physical symptoms involving one body part or function, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.
b. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about having an organic disease, in hypochondriasis, people have physical symptoms involving one body part or function.
c. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about having an organic disease, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms.
d. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.
d. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.

The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is
Choose one answer.
a. depersonalization disorder.
b. psychogenic amnesia.
c. disidentity disorder.
d. derealization disorder.
a. depersonalization disorder.

The majority of individuals who ATTEMPT suicide are ________ and the majority of those who COMPLETE suicide are ________.
Choose one answer.
a. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65
b. men and people over age 65; women and people between age 18 and 24
c. adolescents; the elderly
d. the elderly; adolescents
a. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65

The development of new methods of coping
Choose one answer.
a. may be an outcome of a crisis.
b. always occurs when adaptive capabilities are exceeded.
c. increases the expectation of future failures.
d. is continuously needed as we face new stressors on a daily basis
a. may be an outcome of a crisis.

Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any physical pathology that could account for them are
Choose one answer.
a. hypochondriacal disorders.
b. anxiety disorders.
c. dissociative disorders.
d. somatoform disorders.
d. somatoform disorders.

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