Psychology Stress & Health

The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

Stress is used to describe what?
The physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral response to events that are considered threatening or challenging.

Something (a event) that causes a stress reaction.

Stress Appraisal
The events of our lives flow thru a psychological filter. How we appraise an event influences how much stress we experience and how effectively we respond.

Stressors can range from what?
Something deadly serious to something that is just annoying or irritating; they can even be imaginary.

What are the 3 main categories of stressors?
1) Catastrophes: unpredictable life events such as floods or crashes that can result in high levels of stress.
2) Major life changes create stress by requiring adjustments:
-these can be happy or sad events
-major life changes have an impact on chronic health problems and risk of accidents.
-SRRS: Social Readjustment Rating Scale
-CUSS: College Undergraduate Stress Scale
3) Daily hassles are the daily frustrations and irritations that have an impact on day-to-day health.

Hans Selye Developed the General Adaption Syndrome which consisted of what 3 stages?
1) Alarm: -The body’s first reaction to the stressor & the sympathetic nervous system is activated
-Fever, nausea, & headache are common reactions
2) Resistance: -Is stressor continues the body settles into sympathetic division activity to help fight off stress
-Person may experience insensitivity to pain
3) Exhaustion: -The body’s resources are gone
-The body attempts to replenish its resources

Sleye’s Basic Point:
Although the human body copes well with temporary stress, prolonged stress can damage it.

Stress Response. Common response to a loved one’s death. Pull back. Conserve Energy

Seek and Give Support
Stress response. found especially among women.

Tend and Befriend:
Stress Response. people (especially women) often provide support to others(tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)

Gender Differences in stress responses..
are reflected in brain scans: women’s brains become more active in areas important for face processing and empathy; men’s become less active.

Psychophysiological Illness
Literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.

The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.

How many cells are active in the search and destroy missions?

White blood cells
1) B Lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.
2) T Lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances- even “good” ones, such as transplanted organs.

“Big Eater” which identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders and worn-out cells.

Natural Killer Cells
(NK Cells) pursue diseased cells (such as those infected by viruses or cancer.

When ur immune system doesn’t function properly, it can err in two directions:
1) responding too strongly, it may attack the body’s own tissues, causing some forms of arthritis or an allergic reaction.
2) Underreacting, it may allow a dormant herpes virus to erupt or cancer cells to multiply

an immune disorder, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Stress cannot give people AIDS. But could stress and negative emotions speed the transition from HIV infection to AIDS in someone already infected? Might stress predict a faster decline in those with AIDS? The answer to both questions seems to be Yes

Heart Disease
Stress has been shown to put ppl at higher risk for heart attacks and strokes in part.
Stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors like drinking alcohol, smoking, eating unhealthy foods, and not exercising.

Weight problems may be associated with stress.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with excessive weight gain and insulin levels become less efficient with body size increase

Stress doesn’t cause cancer, but stress can have a suppressive effect on the immune system making the unchecked growth of cancer more likely.
In a healthy, functioning immune system, lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells search out and destroy cancer cells and cancer-damaged cells. If stress weakens the immune system, might this weaken a person’s ability to fight off cancer.

Depression to can be lethal. Happy ppl tend to be healthier and to outlive their unhappy peers.
The accumulated evidence from 57 studies suggests that “depression substantially increases the risk of death, especially death by unnatural causes and cardiovascular disease.

Type A Personalities
Are ambitious, competitive, time conscious, heighten irritability and angry workaholics
-higher risk for coronary heart disease

Type B personalities
are relaxed and easy-going, not that competitive or driven, slow to anger, seem at peace
-less risk for coronary heart disease

Type C Personalities
are pleasant and try to keep the peace, but repressed, internalizing their negative emotions, often lonely

The Hardy Personality Type
ppl are hard workers who lack the anger and hostility of the type a personality, instead seeming to thrive on stress
-less illness

ppl who expect positive outcomes (half full)

people who expect negative outcomes (half empty)

Optimism is associated with..
longer life and increase immune system functioning. Optimists agree with statements such as, “In uncertain times, I usually expect the best.” People with an optimistic outlook expect to have more control, to cope better with stressful events, and to enjoy better health

Coping Strategies
Actions that ppl can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors.

Problem-Focused Coping
used when the problem can be eliminated or changed so that it is no longer stressful or so that the impact of the stressor is reduced; people try to eliminate the source of the stress

Emotion-Focused Coping
used with problem-focused coping and involves changing one’s emotional reactions to a stressor
Psychological defense mechanisms are unconscious distortions of perceived reality and can be a form of emotion-focused coping

Social Support
feeling liked and encouraged by intimate friends and family—promotes both happiness and health
People are less likely to die early if supported by close relationships
People in low-conflict marriages live longer, healthier lives than the unmarried
Social support calms us and reduces blood pressure and stress hormones
Close relationships give us an opportunity for “open heart therapy,” a chance to confide painful feelings

Deborah Wells(09) Karen Allen (03)
have reported that pets have sometimes been found to increase the odds of survival after a heart attack, to relieve depression among AIDS patients, and to lower the level of blood pressure and blood lipids that contribute to cardiovascular risk

Aerobic Exercise
Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness
Exercise helps fight heart disease by strengthening the heart, increasing bloodflow, keeping blood vessels open, and lowering both blood pressure and the blood pressure reaction to stress
Many studies reveal that aerobic exercise can reduce stress, depression, and anxiety

Mediation Meditation
can produce a state of relaxation and reduce the physical reactions common to stressful situations
More than 60 studies have found that relaxation procedures can also help alleviate headaches, hypertension, anxiety, and insomnia
Concentrative meditation involves focusing inward on some repetitive stimulus, such as one’s breathing; so the mind can forget daily hassles & problems
Receptive meditation involves focusing outward to expand conscious awareness

Faith Factor
Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active
religion promotes self-control, social support, and positive thinking

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The chapter outlines the biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that influence health and illness. The potential stressors that increase the risk of illness are stressful experiences or situations that are uncontrollable or chronic lasting for at least six months. …

Stress Physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment. Fight or flight response A response to stress in which the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine glands …

This is the acute (immediate) response to stress (it uses electrical signals). Higher brain areas (Cortex) detect and perceive something as a stressor, triggering the Hypothalamus, which in turn activates the Sympathetic branch of the Autonomic nervous system, stimulating the …

This is the acute (immediate) response to stress (it uses electrical signals). Higher brain areas (Cortex) detect and perceive something as a stressor, triggering the Hypothalamus, which in turn activates the Sympathetic branch of the Autonomic nervous system, stimulating the …

three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome alarm reaction(physical reaction, imobilize: heart rate increas), resistance(coping: women use the tend-and-befriend response), and exhaustion In response to stress, the adrenal glands release epinephrine WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

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