2) Major life changes create stress by requiring adjustments:
-these can be happy or sad events
-major life changes have an impact on chronic health problems and risk of accidents.
-SRRS: Social Readjustment Rating Scale
-CUSS: College Undergraduate Stress Scale
3) Daily hassles are the daily frustrations and irritations that have an impact on day-to-day health.
-Fever, nausea, & headache are common reactions
2) Resistance: -Is stressor continues the body settles into sympathetic division activity to help fight off stress
-Person may experience insensitivity to pain
3) Exhaustion: -The body’s resources are gone
-The body attempts to replenish its resources
1) B Lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.
2) T Lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances- even “good” ones, such as transplanted organs.
2) Underreacting, it may allow a dormant herpes virus to erupt or cancer cells to multiply
Stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors like drinking alcohol, smoking, eating unhealthy foods, and not exercising.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with excessive weight gain and insulin levels become less efficient with body size increase
In a healthy, functioning immune system, lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells search out and destroy cancer cells and cancer-damaged cells. If stress weakens the immune system, might this weaken a person’s ability to fight off cancer.
The accumulated evidence from 57 studies suggests that “depression substantially increases the risk of death, especially death by unnatural causes and cardiovascular disease.
-higher risk for coronary heart disease
-less risk for coronary heart disease
Psychological defense mechanisms are unconscious distortions of perceived reality and can be a form of emotion-focused coping
People are less likely to die early if supported by close relationships
People in low-conflict marriages live longer, healthier lives than the unmarried
Social support calms us and reduces blood pressure and stress hormones
Close relationships give us an opportunity for “open heart therapy,” a chance to confide painful feelings
Exercise helps fight heart disease by strengthening the heart, increasing bloodflow, keeping blood vessels open, and lowering both blood pressure and the blood pressure reaction to stress
Many studies reveal that aerobic exercise can reduce stress, depression, and anxiety
More than 60 studies have found that relaxation procedures can also help alleviate headaches, hypertension, anxiety, and insomnia
Concentrative meditation involves focusing inward on some repetitive stimulus, such as one’s breathing; so the mind can forget daily hassles & problems
Receptive meditation involves focusing outward to expand conscious awareness
religion promotes self-control, social support, and positive thinking